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      ARF Promotes MDM2 Degradation and Stabilizes p53: ARF-INK4a Locus Deletion Impairs Both the Rb and p53 Tumor Suppression Pathways

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      Cell

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          The INK4a-ARF locus encodes two unrelated proteins that both function in tumor suppression. p16INK4 binds to and inhibits the activity of CDK4 and CDK6, and ARF arrests the cell cycle in a p53-dependent manner. We show here that ARF binds to MDM2 and promotes the rapid degradation of MDM2. This interaction is mediated by the exon 1beta-encoded N-terminal domain of ARF and a C-terminal region of MDM2. ARF-promoted MDM2 degradation is associated with MDM2 modification and concurrent p53 stabilization and accumulation. The functional consequence of ARF-regulated p53 levels via MDM2 proteolysis is evidenced by the ability of ectopically expressed ARF to restore a p53-imposed G1 cell cycle arrest that is otherwise abrogated by MDM2. Thus, deletion of the ARF-INK4a locus simultaneously impairs both the INK4a-cyclin D/CDK4-RB and the ARF-MDM2-p53 pathways.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Mdm2 promotes the rapid degradation of p53.

           Y Haupt,  M Oren,  A Kazaz (1997)
          The p53 tumour-suppressor protein exerts antiproliferative effects, including growth arrest and apoptosis, in response to various types of stress. The activity of p53 is abrogated by mutations that occur frequently in tumours, as well as by several viral and cellular proteins. The Mdm2 oncoprotein is a potent inhibitor of p53. Mdm2 binds the transcriptional activation domain of p53 and blocks its ability to regulate target genes and to exert antiproliferative effects. On the other hand, p53 activates the expression of the mdm2 gene in an autoregulatory feedback loop. The interval between p53 activation and consequent Mdm2 accumulation defines a time window during which p53 exerts its effects. We now report that Mdm2 also promotes the rapid degradation of p53 under conditions in which p53 is otherwise stabilized. This effect of Mdm2 requires binding of p53; moreover, a small domain of p53, encompassing the Mdm2-binding site, confers Mdm2-dependent detstabilization upon heterologous proteins. Raised amounts of Mdm2 strongly repress mutant p53 accumulation in tumour-derived cells. During recovery from DNA damage, maximal Mdm2 induction coincides with rapid p53 loss. We propose that the Mdm2-promoted degradation of p53 provides a new mechanism to ensure effective termination of the p53 signal.
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            The mdm-2 oncogene product forms a complex with the p53 protein and inhibits p53-mediated transactivation.

            A cellular phosphoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 90 kd (p90) that forms a complex with both mutant and wild-type p53 protein has been characterized, purified, and identified. The protein was identified as a product of the murine double minute 2 gene (mdm-2). The mdm-2 gene enhances the tumorigenic potential of cells when it is overexpressed and encodes a putative transcription factor. To determine if mdm-2 could modulate p53 transactivation, a p53-responsive element from the muscle creatine kinase gene was employed. A wild-type p53-expressing plasmid enhanced the expression of the p53-responsive element when cotransfected into cells that contain no endogenous p53. When a cosmid expressing mdm-2 was transfected with this p53-expressing plasmid, the transactivation of the p53-responsive element was inhibited. Thus, a product of the mdm-2 oncogene forms a tight complex with the p53 protein, and the mdm-2 oncogene can inhibit p53-mediated transactivation.
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              DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of p53 alleviates inhibition by MDM2.

              DNA-damaging agents signal to p53 through as yet unidentified posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here we show that phosphorylation of human p53 at serine 15 occurs after DNA damage and that this leads to reduced interaction of p53 with its negative regulator, the oncoprotein MDM2, in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, using purified DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), we demonstrate that phosphorylation of p53 at serines 15 and 37 impairs the ability of MDM2 to inhibit p53-dependent transactivation. We present evidence that these effects are most likely due to a conformational change induced upon phosphorylation of p53. Our studies provide a plausible mechanism by which the induction of p53 can be modulated by DNA-PK (or other protein kinases with similar specificity) in response to DNA damage.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell
                Cell
                Elsevier BV
                00928674
                March 1998
                March 1998
                : 92
                : 6
                : 725-734
                Article
                10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81401-4
                9529249
                © 1998

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