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      Identification of critical factors that significantly affect the dose-response in mosquitoes irradiated as pupae


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          The sterile insect technique (SIT) for use against mosquitoes consists of several steps including the production of the target species in large numbers, the separation of males and females, the sterilization of the males, and the packing, transport and release of the sterile males at the target site. The sterility of the males is the basis of the technique; for this, efficient and standardized irradiation methods are needed to ensure that the required level of sterility is reliably and reproducibly achieved. While several reports have found that certain biological factors, handling methods and varying irradiation procedures can alter the level of induced sterility in insects, few studies exist in which the methodologies are adequately described and discussed for the reproductive sterilization of mosquitoes. Numerous irradiation studies on mosquito pupae have resulted in varying levels of sterility. Therefore, we initiated a series of small-scale experiments to first investigate variable parameters that may influence dose-response in mosquito pupae, and secondly, identify those factors that potentially have a significantly large effect and need further attention.


          In this study, we compiled the results of a series of experiments investigating variable parameters such as pupal age ( Aedes aegypti), pupal size ( Ae. aegypti), geographical origin of mosquito strains ( Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus), exposure methods (in wet versus dry conditions, Ae. albopictus) and subsequently in low versus high oxygen environments [submerged in water (low O 2 (< 5 %)] and in air [high O 2 (~ 21 %)] on the radiosensitivity of male pupae ( Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Anopheles arabiensis).


          Results indicate that radiosensitvity of Ae. aegypti decreases with increasing pupal age (99% induced sterility in youngest pupae, compared to 93% in oldest pupae), but does not change with differences in pupal size ( P = 0.94). Differing geographical origin of the same mosquito species did not result in variations in radiosensitivity in Ae. aegypti pupae [Brazil, Indonesia, France (La Reunion), Thailand] or Ae. albopictus [Italy, France (La Reunion)]. Differences in induced sterility were seen following irradiation of pupae that were in wet versus dry conditions, which led to further tests showing significant radioprotective effects of oxygen depletion during irradiation procedures in three tested mosquito species, as seen in other insects.


          These findings infer the necessity to further evaluate significant factors and reassess dose-response for mosquitoes with controlled variables to be able to formulate protocols to achieve reliable and reproducible levels of sterility for application in the frame of the SIT.

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          Radiation-induced sterility for pupal and adult stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

          Background In the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), radiation-induced sterility in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) was studied. Male mosquitoes were exposed to gamma rays in the pupal or adult stage and dose-sterility curves were determined. Methods Pupae were irradiated shortly before emergence (at 22–26 hrs of age), and adults <24 hrs post emergence. Doses tested ranged between 0 and 100 Gy. The effects of irradiation on adult emergence, male survival, induced sterility and insemination capability were evaluated. Emergence and insemination data were analysed using independent t-tests against the control. Correlation analyses were performed for insemination rate and dose and insemination and fecundity. Male survival was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Finally, the calculated residual fertility values were inverse-normal transformed and linear regression analyses performed. Results Irradiation of pupae, for all doses tested, had no effect on adult emergence. Survival curves of males irradiated as pupae or adults were similar or even slightly higher than non-irradiated males. Overall, adults appeared to be slightly more susceptible to irradiation, although no significant differences for individual doses were observed. In the pupal stage, a significant negative correlation was found between insemination and dose, but the correlation-coefficient was associated with less than 25% of the total variation. A review of the literature indicated that An. arabiensis is more radiation resistant than other anopheline mosquitoes. Conclusion The optimal dose for male insects to be released in an SIT programme depends on their level of sterility and competitiveness. The use of semi-sterilizing doses to produce more competitive insects is discussed. The most convenient developmental stage for mosquito irradiation on a mass-scale are pupae, but pupal irradiation resulted in a lower insemination rate at the highest dose compared to adult irradiation. On the basis of this study, a suitable dose range that includes semi-sterilizing doses is identified to initiate competitiveness experiments for males irradiated at both developmental stages.
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            An improved separator for the developmental stages, sexes, and species of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

            D A Focks (1980)
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              Standard operating procedures for standardized mass rearing of the dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) - II - Egg storage and hatching

              Background Management of large quantities of eggs will be a crucial aspect of the efficient and sustainable mass production of mosquitoes for programmes with a Sterile Insect Technique component. The efficiency of different hatching media and effectiveness of long term storage methods are presented here. Methods The effect on hatch rate of storage duration and three hatching media was analysed: deionized water, boiled deionized water and a bacterial broth, using Two-way ANOVA and Post hoc Tukey tests, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to find the effect on the proportion of collapsed eggs. Two long term storage methods were also tested: conventional storage (egg paper strips stored in zip lock bags within a sealed plastic box), and water storage (egg papers in a covered plastic cup with deionized water). Regression analyses were used to find the effect of water storage and storage duration on hatch rate. Results Both species hatched most efficiently in bacterial broth. Few eggs hatched in deionized water, and pre-boiling the water increased the hatch rate of Ae. aegypti, but not Ae. albopictus. A hatch rate greater than 80 % was obtained after 10 weeks of conventional storage in Ae. aegypti and 11 weeks in Ae. albopictus. After this period, hatching decreased dramatically; no eggs hatched after 24 weeks. Storing eggs in water produced an 85 % hatch rate after 5 months in both species. A small but significant proportion of eggs hatched in the water, probably due to combined effects of natural deoxygenation of the water over time and the natural instalment hatching typical of the species. Conclusions The demonstrated efficiency of the bacterial broth hatching medium for both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti facilitates mass production of these two important vector species in the same facility, with use of a common hatching medium reducing cost and operational complexity. Similarly the increased hatch rate of eggs stored in water would allow greater flexibility of egg management in a large programme over the medium term, particularly if oxygenation of the water by bubbling oxygen through the storage tray could be applied to prevent hatching during storage.

                Author and article information

                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                9 September 2019
                9 September 2019
                : 12
                : 435
                [1 ]Insect Pest Control Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna, Austria
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2165 8627, GRID grid.8664.c, Institute for Insectbiotechnology, , Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, ; Winchester Str. 2, 35394 Gießen, Germany
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2360 039X, GRID grid.12981.33, Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control of the Ministry of Education, Sun Yat-sen University - Michigan State University Joint Center of Vector Control for Tropical Diseases, Zhongshan School of Medicine, , Sun Yat-Sen University, ; Guangzhou, 510080 Guangdong China
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                : 28 January 2019
                : 3 September 2019
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                © The Author(s) 2019

                aedes aegypti,aedes albopictus,anopheles arabiensis,hypoxia,irradiation,gammacell,induced sterility,sit


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