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      Whole brain imaging reveals distinct spatial patterns of amyloid beta deposition in three mouse models of Alzheimer's disease

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          Abstract

          A variety of Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models overexpress mutant forms of human amyloid precursor protein (APP), producing high levels of amyloid β (Aβ) and forming plaques. However, the degree to which these models mimic spatiotemporal patterns of Aβ deposition in brains of AD patients is unknown. Here, we mapped the spatial distribution of Aβ plaques across age in three APP-overexpression mouse lines (APP/PS1, Tg2576, and hAPP-J20) using in vivo labeling with methoxy-X04, high throughput whole brain imaging, and an automated informatics pipeline. Images were acquired with high resolution serial two-photon tomography and labeled plaques were detected using custom-built segmentation algorithms. Image series were registered to the Allen Mouse Brain Common Coordinate Framework, a 3D reference atlas, enabling automated brain-wide quantification of plaque density, number, and location. In both APP/PS1 and Tg2576 mice, plaques were identified first in isocortex, followed by olfactory, hippocampal, and cortical subplate areas. In hAPP-J20 mice, plaque density was highest in hippocampal areas, followed by isocortex, with little to no involvement of olfactory or cortical subplate areas. Within the major brain divisions, distinct regions were identified with high (or low) plaque accumulation; for example, the lateral visual area within the isocortex of APP/PS1 mice had relatively higher plaque density compared with other cortical areas, while in hAPP-J20 mice, plaques were densest in the ventral retrosplenial cortex. In summary, we show how whole brain imaging of amyloid pathology in mice reveals the extent to which a given model recapitulates the regional Aβ deposition patterns described in AD.

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          Most cited references39

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          A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain.

          Comprehensive knowledge of the brain's wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species. Here we report a brain-wide, cellular-level, mesoscale connectome for the mouse. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas uses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adeno-associated viral vectors to trace axonal projections from defined regions and cell types, and high-throughput serial two-photon tomography to image the EGFP-labelled axons throughout the brain. This systematic and standardized approach allows spatial registration of individual experiments into a common three dimensional (3D) reference space, resulting in a whole-brain connectivity matrix. A computational model yields insights into connectional strength distribution, symmetry and other network properties. Virtual tractography illustrates 3D topography among interconnected regions. Cortico-thalamic pathway analysis demonstrates segregation and integration of parallel pathways. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a freely available, foundational resource for structural and functional investigations into the neural circuits that support behavioural and cognitive processes in health and disease.
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            APP processing and synaptic function.

            A large body of evidence has implicated Abeta peptides and other derivatives of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) as central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the functional relationship of APP and its proteolytic derivatives to neuronal electrophysiology is not known. Here, we show that neuronal activity modulates the formation and secretion of Abeta peptides in hippocampal slice neurons that overexpress APP. In turn, Abeta selectively depresses excitatory synaptic transmission onto neurons that overexpress APP, as well as nearby neurons that do not. This depression depends on NMDA-R activity and can be reversed by blockade of neuronal activity. Synaptic depression from excessive Abeta could contribute to cognitive decline during early AD. In addition, we propose that activity-dependent modulation of endogenous Abeta production may normally participate in a negative feedback that could keep neuronal hyperactivity in check. Disruption of this feedback system could contribute to disease progression in AD.
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              Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation.

              Multicolor nonlinear microscopy of living tissue using two- and three-photon-excited intrinsic fluorescence combined with second harmonic generation by supermolecular structures produces images with the resolution and detail of standard histology without the use of exogenous stains. Imaging of intrinsic indicators within tissue, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, retinol, indoleamines, and collagen provides crucial information for physiology and pathology. The efficient application of multiphoton microscopy to intrinsic imaging requires knowledge of the nonlinear optical properties of specific cell and tissue components. Here we compile and demonstrate applications involving a range of intrinsic molecules and molecular assemblies that enable direct visualization of tissue morphology, cell metabolism, and disease states such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Comparative Neurology
                J Comp Neurol
                Wiley
                00219967
                December 04 2018
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Allen Institute for Brain Science; Seattle Washington
                [2 ]Washington University in St. Louis
                [3 ]Department of Neuroscience; Pomona College; Claremont California
                Article
                10.1002/cne.24555
                8026112
                30311654
                16872178-6358-46c9-a36b-7b6a7ebf122f
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

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