Adipose tissue tumors of the retroperitoneum showing no identifiable cytologic atypia are usually classified as lipomalike well-differentiated liposarcoma. Whether a subset of these tumors represents true examples of retroperitoneal lipoma remains a controversial subject, because the diagnostic liposarcoma cells may be of difficult identification, even after extensive sampling. Herein, we describe a large retroperitoneal lipoma with classic histopathologic, cytogenetic, molecular cytogenetic, and molecular genetic features. Extensive morphologic inspection showed no evidence of cytologic atypia. Cytogenetic analysis performed on fresh tissue material revealed the classic lipoma chromosome t(3;12)(q27;q14-15). Fluorescence in situ hybridization on multiple sections excluded the presence of MDM2 and CDK4 amplification, but showed HMGA2 balanced rearrangement in most cells. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing analysis confirmed the presence of the HMGA2-LPP fusion gene, a characteristic and the most common fusion product found in lipoma. The patient has been followed for 2.5 years without evidence of recurrence or metastasis. These results indicate that retroperitoneal lipomata do exist, but their diagnosis must rely on stringent histologic, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic analysis.