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      Tritrophic Interactions among Arthropod Natural Enemies, Herbivores and Plants Considering Volatile Blends at Different Scale Levels

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      Cells
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are released by plants upon damaged or disturbance by phytophagous insects. Plants emit HIPV signals not merely in reaction to tissue damage, but also in response to herbivore salivary secretions, oviposition, and excrement. Although certain volatile chemicals are retained in plant tissues and released rapidly upon damaged, others are synthesized de novo in response to herbivore feeding and emitted not only from damaged tissue but also from nearby by undamaged leaves. HIPVs can be used by predators and parasitoids to locate herbivores at different spatial scales. The HIPV-emitting spatial pattern is dynamic and heterogeneous in nature and influenced by the concentration, chemical makeup, breakdown of the emitted mixes and environmental elements (e.g., turbulence, wind and vegetation) which affect the foraging of biocontrol agents. In addition, sensory capability to detect volatiles and the physical ability to move towards the source were also different between natural enemy individuals. The impacts of HIPVs on arthropod natural enemies have been partially studied at spatial scales, that is why the functions of HIPVs is still subject under much debate. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge and loopholes regarding the role of HIPVs in tritrophic interactions at multiple scale levels. Therefore, we contend that closing these loopholes will make it much easier to use HIPVs for sustainable pest management in agriculture.

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          Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature.

          Herbivore attack is known to increase the emission of volatiles, which attract predators to herbivore-damaged plants in the laboratory and agricultural systems. We quantified volatile emissions from Nicotiana attenuata plants growing in natural populations during attack by three species of leaf-feeding herbivores and mimicked the release of five commonly emitted volatiles individually. Three compounds (cis-3-hexen-1-ol, linalool, and cis-alpha-bergamotene) increased egg predation rates by a generalist predator; linalool and the complete blend decreased lepidopteran oviposition rates. As a consequence, a plant could reduce the number of herbivores by more than 90% by releasing volatiles. These results confirm that indirect defenses can operate in nature.
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            Biosynthesis, function and metabolic engineering of plant volatile organic compounds.

            Plants synthesize an amazing diversity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that facilitate interactions with their environment, from attracting pollinators and seed dispersers to protecting themselves from pathogens, parasites and herbivores. Recent progress in -omics technologies resulted in the isolation of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of many volatiles and contributed to our understanding of regulatory mechanisms involved in VOC formation. In this review, we largely focus on the biosynthesis and regulation of plant volatiles, the involvement of floral volatiles in plant reproduction as well as their contribution to plant biodiversity and applications in agriculture via crop-pollinator interactions. In addition, metabolic engineering approaches for both the improvement of plant defense and pollinator attraction are discussed in light of methodological constraints and ecological complications that limit the transition of crops with modified volatile profiles from research laboratories to real-world implementation. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.
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              The use of push-pull strategies in integrated pest management.

              Push-pull strategies involve the behavioral manipulation of insect pests and their natural enemies via the integration of stimuli that act to make the protected resource unattractive or unsuitable to the pests (push) while luring them toward an attractive source (pull) from where the pests are subsequently removed. The push and pull components are generally nontoxic. Therefore, the strategies are usually integrated with methods for population reduction, preferably biological control. Push-pull strategies maximize efficacy of behavior-manipulating stimuli through the additive and synergistic effects of integrating their use. By orchestrating a predictable distribution of pests, efficiency of population-reducing components can also be increased. The strategy is a useful tool for integrated pest management programs reducing pesticide input. We describe the principles of the strategy, list the potential components, and present case studies reviewing work on the development and use of push-pull strategies in each of the major areas of pest control.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                CELLC6
                Cells
                Cells
                MDPI AG
                2073-4409
                January 2023
                January 07 2023
                : 12
                : 2
                : 251
                Article
                10.3390/cells12020251
                36672186
                1ef1e9fd-52b2-4edd-a792-2772f5f7fd57
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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