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Potential Long-Term Complications of Endovascular Stent Grafting for Blunt Thoracic Aortic Injury

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The Scientific World Journal

The Scientific World Journal

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      Abstract

      Blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) is a rare, but lethal, consequence of rapid deceleration events. Most victims of BTAI die at the scene of the accident. Of those who arrive to the hospital alive, expedient aortic intervention significantly improves survival. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been accepted as the standard of care for BTAI at many centers, primarily due to the convincing evidence of lower mortality and morbidity in comparison to open surgery. However, less attention has been given to potential long-term complications of TEVAR for BTAI. This paper focuses on these complications, which include progressive aortic expansion with aging, inadequate stent graft characteristics, device durability concerns, long-term radiation exposure concerns from follow-up computed tomography scans, and the potential for (Victims of Modern Imaging Technology) VOMIT.

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      Most cited references 40

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      Nonpenetrating traumatic injury of the aorta.

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        Endovascular repair of traumatic thoracic aortic injury: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery.

        The Society for Vascular Surgery® pursued development of clinical practice guidelines for the management of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries with thoracic endovascular aortic repair. In formulating clinical practice guidelines, the Society selected a panel of experts and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. They used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methods (GRADE) to develop and present their recommendations. The systematic review included 7768 patients from 139 studies. The mortality rate was significantly lower in patients who underwent endovascular repair, followed by open repair, and nonoperative management (9%, 19%, and 46%, respectively, P < .01). Based on the overall very low quality of evidence, the committee suggests that endovascular repair of thoracic aortic transection is associated with better survival and decreased risk of spinal cord ischemia, renal injury, graft, and systemic infections compared with open repair or nonoperative management (Grade 2, Level C). The committee was also surveyed on a variety of issues that were not specifically addressed by the meta-analysis. On these select matters, the majority opinions of the committee suggest urgent repair following stabilization of other injuries, observation of minimal aortic defects, selective (vs routine) revascularization in cases of left subclavian artery coverage, and that spinal drainage is not routinely required in these cases. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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          Operative repair or endovascular stent graft in blunt traumatic thoracic aortic injuries: results of an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Study.

          The purpose of this American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter study is to assess the early efficacy and safety of endovascular stent grafts (SGs) in traumatic thoracic aortic injuries and compare outcomes with the standard operative repair (OR). Prospective, multicenter study. Data for the following were collected: age, blood pressure, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at admission, type of aortic injury, injury severity score, abbreviate injury scale (AIS), transfusions, survival, ventilator days, complications, and intensive care unit and hospital days. The outcomes between the two groups (open repair or SG) were compared, adjusting for presence of critical extrathoracic trauma (head, abdomen, or extremity AIS >3), GCS score 55 years. Separate multivariable analysis was performed, one for patients without and one for patients with associated critical extrathoracic injuries (head, abdomen, or extremity AIS >3), to compare the outcomes of the two therapeutic modalities adjusting for hypotension, GCS score 55 years. One hundred ninety-three patients met the criteria for inclusion. Overall, 125 patients (64.9%) were selected for SG and 68 (35.2%) for OR. SG was selected in 71.6% of the 74 patients with major extrathoracic injuries and in 60.0% of the 115 patients with no major extrathoracic injuries. SG patients were significantly older than OR patients. Overall, 25 patients in the SG group (20.0%) developed 32 device-related complications. There were 18 endoleaks (14.4%), 6 of which needed open repair. Procedure-related paraplegia developed in 2.9% in the OR and 0.8% in the SG groups (p = 0.28). Multivariable analysis adjusting for severe extrathoracic injuries, hypotension, GCS, and age, showed that the SG group had a significantly lower mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 8.42; 95% CI: [2.76-25.69]; adjusted p value <0.001), and fewer blood transfusions (adjusted mean difference: 4.98; 95% CI: [0.14-9.82]; adjusted p value = 0.046) than the OR group. Among the 115 patients without major extrathoracic injuries, higher mortality and higher transfusion requirements were also found in the OR group (adjusted odds ratio for mortality: 13.08; 95% CI [2.53-67.53], adjusted p value = 0.002 and adjusted mean difference in transfusion units: 4.45; 95% CI [1.39-7.51]; adjusted p value = 0.004). Among the 74 patients with major extrathoracic injuries, significantly higher mortality and pneumonia rate were found in the OR group (adjusted p values 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that centers with high volume of endovascular procedures had significantly fewer systemic complications (adjusted p value 0.001), fewer local complications (adjusted p value p = 0.033), and shorter hospital lengths of stay (adjusted p value 0.005) than low-volume centers. Most surgeons select SG for traumatic thoracic aortic ruptures, irrespective of associated injuries, injury severity, and age. SG is associated with significantly lower mortality and fewer blood transfusions, but there is a considerable risk of serious device-related complications. There is a major and urgent need for improvement of the available endovascular devices.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., 26 Portobello Road, Arden, NC 28704, USA
            Author notes

            Academic Editors: J. O. Guerrissi and K. Kamide

            Journal
            ScientificWorldJournal
            ScientificWorldJournal
            TSWJ
            The Scientific World Journal
            The Scientific World Journal
            1537-744X
            2012
            1 April 2012
            : 2012
            3322436
            22547999
            10.1100/2012/897489
            Copyright © 2012 Larry E. Miller.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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