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      ABO-Incompatible Living Donor Liver Transplantation from Hepatitis B Core Antibody Positive Donor to Hepatitis C Liver Cirrhosis Recipient: A Case Report

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          Abstract

          Herein, we describe an extremely rare experience of a patient with liver cirrhosis from hepatitis C virus (LC-HCV) who underwent an ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation (ABO-I-LDLT) using a hepatitis B core antibody (HBc-Ab) positive donor's liver graft. A 47-year-old Japanese woman with end stage LC-HCV, as a recipient, was preoperatively administered rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids without plasma exchange. A routine ABO-I-LDLT procedure was applied using her daughter's HBc-Ab positive liver graft. Prophylaxis of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection using hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and entecavir had been properly administered. Three months after the ABO-I-LDLT, HCV hepatitis relapsed. To date, this patient has been under antiviral therapy and prophylaxis of HBV infection using HBIG, while entecavir has been continued. The cognitions and techniques with regard to ABO-I-LDLT, prophylaxis of HBV cross infection, various patterns of immunosuppression, and antiviral therapy for HCV relapse are indispensable in managing a transplant recipient. According to the prophylaxis of HBV cross infection under ABO-I-LDLT, it may be very important to keep the HBs-Ab titer higher than usual for HBV naïve recipients, because severe systemic immunosuppression can cause de novo hepatitis.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Liver grafts from anti-hepatitis B core positive donors: a systematic review.

          Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission after liver transplantation of grafts from HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc positive donors is well established, the growing organ shortage favours the use of such marginal grafts. We systematically evaluated the risk of HBV infection after liver transplantation with such grafts and the effect of anti-HBV prophylaxis. We performed a literature review over the last 15 years identifying 39 studies including 903 recipients of anti-HBc positive liver grafts. Recurrent HBV infection developed in 11% of HBsAg-positive liver transplant recipients of anti-HBc positive grafts, while survival was similar (67-100%) to HBsAg-positive recipients of anti-HBc negative grafts. De novo HBV infection developed in 19% of HBsAg-negative recipients being less frequent in anti-HBc/anti-HBs positive than HBV naive cases without prophylaxis (15% vs 48%, p<0.001). Anti-HBV prophylaxis reduced de novo infection rates in both anti-HBc/anti-HBs positive (3%) and HBV naive recipients (12%). De novo infection rates were 19%, 2.6% and 2.8% in HBsAg-negative recipients under hepatitis B immunoglobulin, lamivudine and their combination, respectively. Liver grafts from anti-HBc positive donors can be safely used, preferentially in HBsAg-positive or anti-HBc/anti-HBs positive recipients. HBsAg-negative recipients should receive prophylaxis with lamivudine, while both anti-HBc and anti-HBs positive recipients may need no prophylaxis at all.
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            Hepatitis B immune globulin to prevent hepatitis B virus graft reinfection following liver transplantation: a concise review.

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              Intraportal infusion therapy as a novel approach to adult ABO-incompatible liver transplantation.

              ABO-incompatible liver transplantation is associated with an extremely complicated postoperative course, especially when the recipients are adults. Two adult patients underwent living-donor liver transplantation from ABO-incompatible donors. The antirejection therapy included multiple perioperative plasmapheresis, splenectomy, systemic triple immunosuppressive regimen with tacrolimus, methylprednisolone, and cyclophophamide, or azathioprine. In addition to these conventional approaches, we performed intraportal infusion therapy after transplantation with methylprednisolone, prostaglandin E1, and gabexate mesilate. With our protocol, antidonor blood group antibody titers in both cases remained low without any evidence of rejection or vascular complications throughout the postoperative course. Biliary complications were transient and resolved completely. The patients have now survived 30 and 12 months posttransplantation and have regained normal life activity with good liver function. Our experience has shown the feasibility of controlling rejection and other complications in adult ABO-incompatible liver transplantation under intraportal infusion therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Case Rep Transplant
                Case Rep Transplant
                CRIT
                Case Reports in Transplantation
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-6943
                2090-6951
                2014
                22 June 2014
                : 2014
                Affiliations
                Department of Surgery, Iwate Medical University, 19-1 Uchimaru, Morioka 020-8505, Japan
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Yasuhiko Sugawara

                Article
                10.1155/2014/507621
                4090435
                Copyright © 2014 Akira Umemura et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Transplantation

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