Using the da Vinci(®) robotic system, surgeons can complete secure thyroidectomy without noticeable neck scarring. This study compared the surgical completeness of transaxillary robotic thyroidectomy (RT) with conventional open procedures (OT) in treating papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients. From April 2009 through February 2011, 94 PTC patients underwent total thyroidectomy with central compartment neck dissection (CCND) at Yonsei University College of Medicine. All patients received 1.1 GBq radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation, post-therapy whole-body scans (TxWBS), and diagnostic WBS (DxWBS) 1 year later. We prospectively compared patient clinicopathologic characteristics and surgical completeness between the two groups. Fifty-one patients underwent OT and 43 underwent RT. Mean age was significantly younger in the RT group. Tumor size, capsular-invasion frequency, multifocality, bilaterality, and central nodal metastasis were not different between the two groups. The number of retrieved nodes during CCND did not significantly differ between the groups. There was no significant difference between the OT and RT groups in stimulated thyroglobulin levels acquired during TxWBS and DxWBS. The RAI uptake ratios at TxWBS were significantly higher in the RT group compared with the OT group; however, follow-up DxWBS showed no difference in RAI uptake ratios. Also, the ablation success rate was similar between the two groups. There were no abnormal findings in follow-up neck ultrasonography in either group. Remnant thyroid tissue ablation after transaxillary RT was successfully managed by 1.1 GBq RAI. RT showed similar surgical completeness versus conventional OT, and provides a safe and feasible surgical option for PTC patients.