Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

The emerging landscape of small nucleolar RNAs in cell biology

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are a large class of small noncoding RNAs present in all eukaryotes sequenced thus far. As a family, they have been well characterized as playing a central role in ribosome biogenesis, guiding either the sequence-specific chemical modification of pre-rRNA (ribosomal RNA) or its processing. However, in higher eukaryotes, numerous orphan snoRNAs were described over a decade ago, with no known target or ascribed function, suggesting the possibility of alternative cellular functionality. In recent years, thanks in great part to advances in sequencing methodologies, we have seen many examples of the diversity that exists in the snoRNA family on multiple levels. In this review, we discuss the identification of novel snoRNA members, of unexpected binding partners, as well as the clarification and extension of the snoRNA target space and the characterization of diverse new noncanonical functions, painting a new and extended picture of the snoRNA landscape. Under the deluge of novel features and functions that have recently come to light, snoRNAs emerge as a central, dynamic, and highly versatile group of small regulatory RNAs. WIREs RNA 2015, 6:381–397. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1284

      Related collections

      Most cited references 96

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Mfold web server for nucleic acid folding and hybridization prediction.

       M Zuker (2003)
      The abbreviated name, 'mfold web server', describes a number of closely related software applications available on the World Wide Web (WWW) for the prediction of the secondary structure of single stranded nucleic acids. The objective of this web server is to provide easy access to RNA and DNA folding and hybridization software to the scientific community at large. By making use of universally available web GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces), the server circumvents the problem of portability of this software. Detailed output, in the form of structure plots with or without reliability information, single strand frequency plots and 'energy dot plots', are available for the folding of single sequences. A variety of 'bulk' servers give less information, but in a shorter time and for up to hundreds of sequences at once. The portal for the mfold web server is http://www.bioinfo.rpi.edu/applications/mfold. This URL will be referred to as 'MFOLDROOT'.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        A human snoRNA with microRNA-like functions.

        Small noncoding RNAs function in concert with Argonaute (Ago) proteins to regulate gene expression at the level of transcription, mRNA stability, or translation. Ago proteins bind small RNAs and form the core of silencing complexes. Here, we report the analysis of small RNAs associated with human Ago1 and Ago2 revealed by immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing. Among the reads, we find small RNAs originating from the small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) ACA45. Moreover, processing of ACA45 requires Dicer activity but is independent of Drosha/DGCR8. Using bioinformatic prediction algorithms and luciferase reporter assays, we uncover the mediator subunit CDC2L6 as one potential mRNA target of ACA45 small RNAs, suggesting a role for ACA45-processing products in posttranscriptional gene silencing. We further identify a number of human snoRNAs with microRNA (miRNA)-like processing signatures. We have, therefore, identified a class of small RNAs in human cells that originate from snoRNAs and can function like miRNAs.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Genenames.org: the HGNC resources in 2015

          The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) based at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) assigns unique symbols and names to human genes. To date the HGNC have assigned over 39 000 gene names and, representing an increase of over 5000 entries in the past two years. As well as increasing the size of our database, we have continued redesigning our website http://www.genenames.org and have modified, updated and improved many aspects of the site including a faster and more powerful search, a vastly improved HCOP tool and a REST service to increase the number of ways users can retrieve our data. This article provides an overview of our current online data and resources, and highlights the changes we have made in recent years.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke Sherbrooke, Canada
            [2 ]Biochemistry Department and RNA Group, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke Sherbrooke, Canada
            Author notes

            Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest for this article.

            Journal
            Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA
            Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA
            wrna
            Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
            John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Hoboken, USA )
            1757-7004
            1757-7012
            Jul-Aug 2015
            16 April 2015
            : 6
            : 4
            : 381-397
            25879954 4696412 10.1002/wrna.1284
            © 2015 The Authors. WIREs RNA published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

            This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

            Categories
            Advanced Reviews

            Comments

            Comment on this article