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      Brain Activity during Different Throwing Games: EEG Exploratory Study

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          Abstract

          The purpose of this study is to explore the differences in brain activity in various types of throwing games by making encephalographic records. Three conditions of throwing games were compared looking for significant differences (simple throwing, throwing to a goal, and simultaneous throwing with another player). After signal processing, power spectral densities were compared through variance analysis ( p ≤ 0.001). Significant differences were found especially in high-beta oscillations (22–30 Hz). “Goal” and “Simultaneous” throwing conditions show significantly higher values than those shown for throws without opponent. This can be explained by the higher demand for motor control and the higher arousal in competition situations. On the other hand, the high-beta records of the “Goal” condition are significantly higher than those of the “Simultaneous” throwing, which could be understood from the association of the beta waves with decision-making processes. These results support the difference in brain activity during similar games. This has several implications: opening up a path to study the effects of each specific game on brain activity and calling into question the transfer of research findings on animal play to all types of human play.

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          Most cited references 74

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          Alpha-band oscillations, attention, and controlled access to stored information

          Alpha-band oscillations are the dominant oscillations in the human brain and recent evidence suggests that they have an inhibitory function. Nonetheless, there is little doubt that alpha-band oscillations also play an active role in information processing. In this article, I suggest that alpha-band oscillations have two roles (inhibition and timing) that are closely linked to two fundamental functions of attention (suppression and selection), which enable controlled knowledge access and semantic orientation (the ability to be consciously oriented in time, space, and context). As such, alpha-band oscillations reflect one of the most basic cognitive processes and can also be shown to play a key role in the coalescence of brain activity in different frequencies.
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            How to Calculate Sample Size for Different Study Designs in Medical Research?

            Calculation of exact sample size is an important part of research design. It is very important to understand that different study design need different method of sample size calculation and one formula cannot be used in all designs. In this short review we tried to educate researcher regarding various method of sample size calculation available for different study designs. In this review sample size calculation for most frequently used study designs are mentioned. For genetic and microbiological studies readers are requested to read other sources.
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              Motivation, emotion, and their inhibitory control mirrored in brain oscillations.

               Denis Knyazev (2006)
              Recent studies suggest brain oscillations as a mechanism for cerebral integration. Such integration can exist across a number of functional domains, with different frequency rhythms associated with each domain. Here, evidence is summarized which shows that delta oscillations depend on activity of motivational systems and participate in salience detection. Theta oscillations are involved in memory and emotional regulation. Alpha oscillations participate in inhibitory processes which contribute to a variety of cognitive operations such as attention and memory. The importance of inhibitory functions associated with alpha oscillations increases during the course of evolution. In ontogenesis, these functions develop later and may be more sensitive to a variety of detrimental environmental influences. In a number of developmental stages and pathological conditions, a deficient alpha and/or increased slow-wave activity are associated with cognitive deficits and a lack of inhibitory control. It is shown that slow-wave and alpha oscillations are reciprocally related to each other. This reciprocal relationship may reflect an inhibitory control over motivational and emotional drives which is implemented by the prefrontal cortex.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                17 September 2020
                September 2020
                : 17
                : 18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Didactics of Musical, Artistic and Body Expression, Faculty of Education of Valladolid, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain; alfonso.garcia.monge@ 123456uva.es
                [2 ]Department of Pedagogy, Faculty of Education of Valladolid, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain; henarrod@ 123456pdg.uva.es
                [3 ]Department of Didactics of Musical, Artistic and Body Expression, Faculty of Education of Palencia, University of Valladolid, 34004 Palencia, Spain; gustavo.gonzalez@ 123456uva.es
                [4 ]Department of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Rey Juan Carlos University, Alcorcón, 28922 Madrid, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: daniel.bores@ 123456urjc.es ; Tel.: +34-605-788-305
                Article
                ijerph-17-06796
                10.3390/ijerph17186796
                7559334
                32957731
                28fc0781-e3bb-477e-85fa-98e967641d74
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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                Public health

                eeg, play, physical games, throwing games, beta oscillations

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