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      Comparison of neurons derived from mouse P19, rat PC12 and human SH-SY5Y cells in the assessment of chemical- and toxin-induced neurotoxicity

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          Abstract

          Background

          Exposure to chemicals might be toxic to the developing brain. There is a need for simple and robust in vitro cellular models for evaluation of chemical-induced neurotoxicity as a complement to traditional studies on animals. In this study, neuronally differentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells (P19 neurons) were compared with human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells for their ability to detect toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg), okadaic acid and acrylamide.

          Methods

          Retinoic acid-treated P19 and SH-SY5Y cells and nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells, allowed to differentiate for 6 days, were exposed to MeHg, okadaic acid and acrylamide for 48 h. Cell survival and neurite outgrowth were assessed with the calcein-AM assay and fluorescence detection of antibodies against the cytoskeletal neuron-specific protein βIII-tubulin, respectively. The effects of glutathione (GSH) and the potent inhibitor of GSH synthesis buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) on the MeHg induced-toxicity were assessed using the PrestoBlue™ cell viability assay and the TMRE mitochondrial membrane potential assay.

          Results

          Differentiated P19 cells developed the most extensive neuronal network among the three cell models and were the most sensitive neuronal model to detect neurotoxic effects of the test compounds. MeHg produced a concentration-dependent toxicity in differentiated P19 cells and SH-SY5Y cells, with statistically significant effects at concentrations from 0.1 μM in the P19 neurons and 1 μM in the SH-SY5Y cells. MeHg induced a decrease in the cellular metabolic activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in the differentiated P19 cells and SH-SY5Y cells, that were attenuated by GSH. Okadaic acid and acrylamide also showed statistically significant toxicity in the P19 neurons, but not in the SH-SY5Y cells or the P12 cells.

          Conclusions

          P19 neurons are more sensitive to detect cytotoxicity of MeHg, okadaic acid and acrylamide than retinoic acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells. P19 neurons are at least as sensitive as differentiated SH-SY5Y cells to detect the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential produced by MeHg and the protective effects of extracellular GSH on MeHg toxicity. P19 neurons may be a useful model to study neurotoxic effects of chemicals.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Establishment of a noradrenergic clonal line of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells which respond to nerve growth factor.

          A single cell clonal line which responds reversibly to nerve growth factor (NGF) has been established from a transplantable rat adrenal pheochromocytoma. This line, designated PC12, has a homogeneous and near-diploid chromosome number of 40. By 1 week's exposure to NGF, PC12 cells cease to multiply and begin to extend branching varicose processes similar to those produced by sympathetic neurons in primary cell culture. By several weeks of exposure to NGF, the PC12 processes reach 500-1000 mum in length. Removal of NGF is followed by degeneration of processes within 24 hr and by resumption of cell multiplication within 72 hr. PC12 cells grown with or without NGF contain dense core chromaffin-like granules up to 350 nm in diameter. The NGF-treated cells also contain small vesicles which accumulate in process varicosities and endings. PC12 cells synthesize and store the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. The levels (per mg of protein) of catecholamines and of the their synthetic enzymes in PC12 cells are comparable to or higher than those found in rat adrenals. NGF-treatment of PC12 cells results in no change in the levels of catecholamines or of their synthetic enzymes when expressed on a per cell basis, but does result in a 4- to 6-fold decrease in levels when expressed on a per mg of protein basis. PC12 cells do not synthesize epinephrine and cannot be induced to do so by treatment with dexamethasone. The PC12 cell line should be a useful model system for neurobiological and neurochemical studies.
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            The SH-SY5Y cell line in Parkinson’s disease research: a systematic review

            Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a devastating and highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease for which only symptomatic treatment is available. In order to develop a truly effective disease-modifying therapy, improvement of our current understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying PD pathogenesis and progression is crucial. For this purpose, standardization of research protocols and disease models is necessary. As human dopaminergic neurons, the cells mainly affected in PD, are difficult to obtain and maintain as primary cells, current PD research is mostly performed with permanently established neuronal cell models, in particular the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y lineage. This cell line is frequently chosen because of its human origin, catecholaminergic (though not strictly dopaminergic) neuronal properties, and ease of maintenance. However, there is no consensus on many fundamental aspects that are associated with its use, such as the effects of culture media composition and of variations in differentiation protocols. Here we present the outcome of a systematic review of scientific articles that have used SH-SY5Y cells to explore PD. We describe the cell source, culture conditions, differentiation protocols, methods/approaches used to mimic PD and the preclinical validation of the SH-SY5Y findings by employing alternative cellular and animal models. Thus, this overview may help to standardize the use of the SH-SY5Y cell line in PD research and serve as a future user’s guide. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13024-017-0149-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              Morphology and growth, tumorigenicity, and cytogenetics of human neuroblastoma cells in continuous culture.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                dina.popova@umu.se
                jessica.karlsson@umu.se
                stig.jacobsson@umu.se
                Journal
                BMC Pharmacol Toxicol
                BMC Pharmacol Toxicol
                BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
                BioMed Central (London )
                2050-6511
                5 June 2017
                5 June 2017
                2017
                : 18
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0001 1034 3451, GRID grid.12650.30, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, , Umeå University, ; Umeå, Sweden
                Article
                151
                10.1186/s40360-017-0151-8
                5460426
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

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