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      The SH-SY5Y cell line in Parkinson’s disease research: a systematic review

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          Abstract

          Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a devastating and highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease for which only symptomatic treatment is available. In order to develop a truly effective disease-modifying therapy, improvement of our current understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying PD pathogenesis and progression is crucial. For this purpose, standardization of research protocols and disease models is necessary. As human dopaminergic neurons, the cells mainly affected in PD, are difficult to obtain and maintain as primary cells, current PD research is mostly performed with permanently established neuronal cell models, in particular the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y lineage. This cell line is frequently chosen because of its human origin, catecholaminergic (though not strictly dopaminergic) neuronal properties, and ease of maintenance. However, there is no consensus on many fundamental aspects that are associated with its use, such as the effects of culture media composition and of variations in differentiation protocols. Here we present the outcome of a systematic review of scientific articles that have used SH-SY5Y cells to explore PD. We describe the cell source, culture conditions, differentiation protocols, methods/approaches used to mimic PD and the preclinical validation of the SH-SY5Y findings by employing alternative cellular and animal models. Thus, this overview may help to standardize the use of the SH-SY5Y cell line in PD research and serve as a future user’s guide.

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          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13024-017-0149-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references75

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          Establishment of a noradrenergic clonal line of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells which respond to nerve growth factor.

          A single cell clonal line which responds reversibly to nerve growth factor (NGF) has been established from a transplantable rat adrenal pheochromocytoma. This line, designated PC12, has a homogeneous and near-diploid chromosome number of 40. By 1 week's exposure to NGF, PC12 cells cease to multiply and begin to extend branching varicose processes similar to those produced by sympathetic neurons in primary cell culture. By several weeks of exposure to NGF, the PC12 processes reach 500-1000 mum in length. Removal of NGF is followed by degeneration of processes within 24 hr and by resumption of cell multiplication within 72 hr. PC12 cells grown with or without NGF contain dense core chromaffin-like granules up to 350 nm in diameter. The NGF-treated cells also contain small vesicles which accumulate in process varicosities and endings. PC12 cells synthesize and store the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. The levels (per mg of protein) of catecholamines and of the their synthetic enzymes in PC12 cells are comparable to or higher than those found in rat adrenals. NGF-treatment of PC12 cells results in no change in the levels of catecholamines or of their synthetic enzymes when expressed on a per cell basis, but does result in a 4- to 6-fold decrease in levels when expressed on a per mg of protein basis. PC12 cells do not synthesize epinephrine and cannot be induced to do so by treatment with dexamethasone. The PC12 cell line should be a useful model system for neurobiological and neurochemical studies.
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            Parkinson disease: from pathology to molecular disease mechanisms.

            Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with both motor and nonmotor symptoms owing to a spreading process of neuronal loss in the brain. At present, only symptomatic treatment exists and nothing can be done to halt the degenerative process, as its cause remains unclear. Risk factors such as aging, genetic susceptibility, and environmental factors all play a role in the onset of the pathogenic process but how these interlink to cause neuronal loss is not known. There have been major advances in the understanding of mechanisms that contribute to nigral dopaminergic cell death, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, altered protein handling, and inflammation. However, it is not known if the same processes are responsible for neuronal loss in nondopaminergic brain regions. Many of the known mechanisms of cell death are mirrored in toxin-based models of PD, but neuronal loss is rapid and not progressive and limited to dopaminergic cells, and drugs that protect against toxin-induced cell death have not translated into neuroprotective therapies in humans. Gene mutations identified in rare familial forms of PD encode proteins whose functions overlap widely with the known molecular pathways in sporadic disease and these have again expanded our knowledge of the neurodegenerative process but again have so far failed to yield effective models of sporadic disease when translated into animals. We seem to be missing some key parts of the jigsaw, the trigger event starting many years earlier in the disease process, and what we are looking at now is merely part of a downstream process that is the end stage of neuronal death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Optimization of chemically defined cell culture media--replacing fetal bovine serum in mammalian in vitro methods.

              Quality assurance is becoming increasingly important. Good laboratory practice (GLP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) are now established standards. The biomedical field aims at an increasing reliance on the use of in vitro methods. Cell and tissue culture methods are generally fast, cheap, reproducible and reduce the use of experimental animals. Good cell culture practice (GCCP) is an attempt to develop a common standard for in vitro methods. The implementation of the use of chemically defined media is part of the GCCP. This will decrease the dependence on animal serum, a supplement with an undefined and variable composition. Defined media supplements are commercially available for some cell types. However, information on the formulation by the companies is often limited and such supplements can therefore not be regarded as completely defined. The development of defined media is difficult and often takes place in isolation. A workshop was organised in 2009 in Copenhagen to discuss strategies to improve the development and use of serum-free defined media. In this report, the results from the meeting are discussed and the formulation of a basic serum-free medium is suggested. Furthermore, recommendations are provided to improve information exchange on newly developed serum-free media. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Helena.Xicoy@radboudumc.nl
                Be.Wieringa@radboudumc.nl
                G.Martens@ncmls.ru.nl
                Journal
                Mol Neurodegener
                Mol Neurodegener
                Molecular Neurodegeneration
                BioMed Central (London )
                1750-1326
                24 January 2017
                24 January 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.461760.2, Department of Cell Biology, , Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (RIMLS), Radboudumc, ; Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000122931605, GRID grid.5590.9, Department of Molecular Animal Physiology, , Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, ; Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                Article
                149
                10.1186/s13024-017-0149-0
                5259880
                28118852
                a87d190e-d69f-43fb-9a3d-21447b820fb3
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 4 October 2016
                : 5 January 2017
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100006209, Radboud Universitair Medisch Centrum;
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Neurosciences
                cell culture conditions,cellular differentiation,cellular model,dopaminergic neuron,neuroblastoma,parkinson’s disease,sh-sy5y cell line

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