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      Erythropoietin and Its Angiogenic Activity

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          Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main hematopoietic hormone acting on progenitor red blood cells via stimulation of cell growth, differentiation, and anti-apoptosis. However, its receptor (EPOR) is also expressed in various non-hematopoietic tissues, including endothelium. EPO is a pleiotropic growth factor that exhibits growth stimulation and cell/tissue protection on numerous cells and tissues. In this article we review the angiogenesis potential of EPO on endothelial cells in heart, brain, and leg ischemia, as well as its role in retinopathy protection and tumor promotion. Furthermore, the effect of EPO on bone marrow and adipose tissue is also discussed.

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          Most cited references 105

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          Jak-STAT pathways and transcriptional activation in response to IFNs and other extracellular signaling proteins.

           Shona Kerr,  I Kerr,  G Stark (1994)
          Through the study of transcriptional activation in response to interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), a previously unrecognized direct signal transduction pathway to the nucleus has been uncovered: IFN-receptor interaction at the cell surface leads to the activation of kinases of the Jak family that then phosphorylate substrate proteins called STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription). The phosphorylated STAT proteins move to the nucleus, bind specific DNA elements, and direct transcription. Recognition of the molecules involved in the IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma pathway has led to discoveries that a number of STAT family members exist and that other polypeptide ligands also use the Jak-STAT molecules in signal transduction.
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            Jak-STAT pathways and transcriptional activation in response to IFNs and other extracellular signaling proteins

             J. Darnell,  I Kerr,  G. Stärk (1994)
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              Transplantation of hypoxia-preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells improves infarcted heart function via enhanced survival of implanted cells and angiogenesis.

              This study explored the novel strategy of hypoxic preconditioning of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells before transplantation into the infarcted heart to promote their survival and therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after myocardial ischemia. Mesenchymal stem cells from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice were cultured under normoxic or hypoxic (0.5% oxygen for 24 hours) conditions. Expression of growth factors and anti-apoptotic genes were examined by immunoblot. Normoxic or hypoxic stem cells were intramyocardially injected into the peri-infarct region of rats 30 minutes after permanent myocardial infarction. Death of mesenchymal stem cells was assessed in vitro and in vivo after transplantation. Angiogenesis, infarct size, and heart function were measured 6 weeks after transplantation. Hypoxic preconditioning increased expression of pro-survival and pro-angiogenic factors including hypoxia-inducible factor 1, angiopoietin-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, Flk-1, erythropoietin, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL. Cell death of hypoxic stem cells and caspase-3 activation in these cells were significantly lower compared with that in normoxic stem cells both in vitro and in vivo. Transplantation of hypoxic versus normoxic mesenchymal stem cells after myocardial infarction resulted in an increase in angiogenesis, as well as enhanced morphologic and functional benefits of stem cell therapy. Hypoxic preconditioning enhances the capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to repair infarcted myocardium, attributable to reduced cell death and apoptosis of implanted cells, increased angiogenesis/vascularization, and paracrine effects.

                Author and article information

                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                13 July 2017
                July 2017
                : 18
                : 7
                [1 ]Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Košice 04001, Slovak; kimakova.patricia@
                [2 ]Institute of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, P.J. Šafárik University in Košice, Košice 04001, Slovak; zuzana.solarova@
                [3 ]Medical Centre for Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana SI-1000, Slovenia; komel@ (R.K.); natasa.debeljak@ (N.D.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ; Tel.: +421-55-234-1199, Fax: +421-55-622-2124

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


                Molecular biology

                cancer, erythropoietin, erythropoietin receptor, endothelial, angiogenesis


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