20 May 2020
Salvia hispanica, chia ingredients, breadmaking products, fatty acid profile, essential amino acid profile, minerals, PRI/RDA/AI (Popular Reference Intake/Recommended Dietary Allowance/Adequate Intake)
Chia seeds and chia flour could be used as ingredients to enrich foods owing to their high amount of nutrients. The goal of this investigation was to provide further information about how replacing wheat flour with chia ingredients (seeds, whole flour, semi-defatted, and low-fat flours) affects the nutritional and functional value of bread. The higher levels of proteins, lipids and minerals determined in raw chia flours directly affected the increase of these nutrients. High levels of phytates were found in chia ingredients (5.1–6.6 μmol/g d.b.), which affect Zn and Fe bioavailability, as predicted by phytate/mineral molar ratios. Bread with chia had a high amount of linoleic acid, especially in bread with chia seeds, owing to protection of seed integrity during baking. Chia ingredients did not show limiting essential amino acids such as lysine, which is deficient in cereals. Glycemic index was lower in bread with chia ingredients compared to control. The beneficial effects on glucose metabolism together with the nutritional and functional characteristics could be clinically important for prevention of metabolic diseases.