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      The non-invasive and automated detection of bovine respiratory disease onset in receiver calves using infrared thermography


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          Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) causes considerable economic loss and biosecurity cost to the beef industry globally and also results in significant degradation to the welfare of affected animals. The successful treatment of this disease depends on the early, timely and cost effective identification of affected animals. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of an automated, RFID driven, noninvasive infrared thermography technology to determine BRD in cattle. Sixty-five calves averaging 220 kg were exposed to standard industry practices of transport and auction. The animals were monitored for BRD using conventional biometric signs for clinical scores, core temperatures, haematology, serum cortisol and infrared thermal values over 3 weeks. The data collected demonstrated that true positive animals for BRD based on a gold standard including core temperature, clinical score, white blood cell number and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio displayed higher peak infrared thermal values of 35.7 ± 0.35 °C compared to true negative animals 34.9 ± 0.22 °C ( P < 0.01). The study also demonstrated that such biometric data can be non-invasively and automatically collected based on a system developed around the animal’s water station. It is concluded that the deployment of such systems in the cattle industry would aid animal managers and practitioners in the identification and management of BRD in cattle populations.

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          Most cited references39

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          The epidemiology of bovine respiratory disease: What is the evidence for predisposing factors?

          Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most costly disease of beef cattle in North America. It is multi-factorial, with a variety of physical and physiological stressors combining to predispose cattle to pneumonia. However, efforts to discern which factors are most important have frequently failed to establish definitive answers. Calves are at highest risk shortly after transport. Risk factors include purchasing from sale barns and commingling. It is unclear whether or not these practices increase susceptibility, increase exposure, or are proxies for poor management. Lighter-weight calves appear to be at greater risk, although this has not been consistent. Persistent infection (PI) with bovine virus diarrhea virus increases BRD occurrence, but it is unclear if PI calves affect other cattle in the feedlot. The complexity of BRD has made it difficult to define involvement of individual factors. Stressors may play a role as "necessary but not sufficient" components, requiring additive effects to cause disease.
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            Bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle: environmental, genetic, and economic factors.

            The objective of this study was to characterize genetic, environmental, and economic factors related to the incidence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot calves. Records from 18,112 calves representing 9 breeds (Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental) and 3 composite types (MARC I, MARC II, and MARC III) over a 15-yr period (1987 to 2001) were evaluated. Disease incidence was observed and recorded by station veterinary and technical staff. The incidence of BRD varied across years, with the annual observed incidence ranging from 5 to 44%. From 1987 to 1992, the annual average incidence generally exceeded 20%. However, in later years the annual incidence did not exceed 14%. The epidemiological pattern indicated that BRD infection increased dramatically after 5 d on feed and remained high until approximately 80 d on feed. Previous BRD infection during the preweaning period did not influence subsequent BRD infection in the feedlot. Steers were more likely to become sick with BRD than heifers; castration before entry in the feedlot may be a predisposing cause. Few significant differences among breeds were detected for BRD incidence. Adjusted solutions from mixed model analyses indicated that Herefords were generally more susceptible to BRD infection (P < 0.05) than MARC I and III composite types. Composite breed types had similar susceptibility compared with other purebred breeds. Mortality associated with BRD was greatest in Red Poll calves (9%) compared with the average over all breeds (4%). Estimates of heritability for resistance to BRD ranged from 0.04 to 0.08 +/- 0.01. When the observed heritability was transformed to an underlying continuous scale, the estimate increased to 0.18. Selection for resistance to BRD could be effective if phenotypes for BRD resistance were known. Thus, development of an inexpensive and humane method of challenging animals with BRD to determine resistance would be an important step in reducing the incidence of BRD. This study also demonstrated that producer-collected field data could be used for selection against this disease. The economic loss associated with lower gains and treatment costs for BRD infection in a 1,000-cattle feedlot was estimated as dollar 13.90 per animal, not including labor and associated handling costs.
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              BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Recent advances in management of highly stressed, newly received feedlot cattle

              Abstract Morbidity and mortality from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and associated losses in performance and carcass merit continue to plague the beef cattle industry. Several viral/bacterial agents are responsible for BRD, and interactions occur among the agents. Viral agents often predispose animals to bacterial infections, and Mannheimia haemolytica is the most frequently isolated organism in cattle with BRD. Laboratory tests are available to characterize organisms causing BRD using easily obtained nasal swab samples. Testing for persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus can be done by a 2-stage technique using PCR and immunohistochemistry. Preconditioning programs that include preweaning viral vaccination programs along with castration could have a significant influence on decreasing BRD in the cattle feeding industry. Metaphylactic antibiotic programs continue to be effective; however, antibiotic resistance is a public concern, and additional management options (e.g., direct-fed microbials or other compounds with antimicrobial properties) deserve attention. Diets with an increased energy concentration achieved by decreasing the dietary roughage concentration may slightly increase the rate of BRD morbidity; however, these diets also increase ADG, DMI, and G:F compared with lower-energy, greater-roughage diets. The extent to which performance and BRD morbidity are affected by dietary protein concentration needs further study, but low and high protein concentrations should probably be avoided. Several trace minerals (e.g., Cu, Se, and Zn) affect immune function, but the effects of supplementation on performance and immune function in model challenge systems and in field studies are equivocal. Adding vitamin E to receiving diets at pharmacological levels (e.g., >1,000 IU·animal−1·day−1) seems beneficial for decreasing BRD morbidity, but it has little effect on performance. Given the limited ability to consistently modify immune function and BRD morbidity through dietary manipulations, we recommend that the diets for newly received cattle be formulated to adjust nutrient concentrations for low feed intake and to provide optimal performance during the receiving period.

                Author and article information

                Res Vet Sci
                Res. Vet. Sci
                Research in Veterinary Science
                Elsevier Ltd.
                3 November 2011
                October 2012
                3 November 2011
                : 93
                : 2
                : 928-935
                [a ]Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, Alberta, Canada T4L 1W1
                [b ]Alberta Agriculture, Lacombe, Alberta, Canada
                [c ]University of Alberta, Department of Agricultural Food and Nutritional Science, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
                [d ]AgResearch Ltd., Hamilton, New Zealand
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. al.schaefer@ 123456agr.gc.ca
                Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 28 February 2011
                : 30 September 2011

                Veterinary medicine
                bovine respiratory disease,non-invasive detection,infrared thermography


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