Dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA), such as destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), occurs in the connective tissues of patients on long-term hemodialysis (HD). Recently, it was suggested that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and β<sub>2</sub>-microglobulin (β2m) modified with AGEs are related to DRA. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether serum levels of pentosidine, which is an AGE, relate to the occurrence of DRA in patients with long-term HD. 127 end-stage renal failure patients, with DSA or CTS and undergoing HD, were examined. Serum pentosidine was measured by the HPLC method with column switching. β2m and intact parathyroid hormone (i-PTH) were measured. Pentosidine levels were significantly elevated in the DSA, CTS, and DRA groups (patients in the DRA group had either DSA and/or CTS). There were no significant differences in the β2m and i-PTH levels between any group. The duration of HD did not correlate with either pentosidine or β2m levels, but did with i-PTH. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to examine the discriminatory ability of pentosidine, β2m, and i-PTH for DRA. The area under the ROC curve was the greatest for pentosidine. Serum β2m levels were not related with the occurrence of DRA. The fact that serum pentosidine was higher in DRA than in non-DRA indicates that it has potential as an indicator of the occurrence of DRA in long-term HD patients.