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      Volatile-mediated between-plant communication in Scots pine and the effects of elevated ozone


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          Conifers are dominant tree species in boreal forests, but are susceptible to attack by bark beetles. Upon bark beetle attack, conifers release substantial quantities of volatile organic compounds known as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). Earlier studies of broadleaved plants have shown that HIPVs provide information to neighbouring plants, which may enhance their defences. However, the defence responses of HIPV-receiver plants have not been described for conifers. Here we advance knowledge of plant–plant communication in conifers by documenting a suite of receiver-plant responses to bark-feeding-induced volatiles. Scots pine seedlings exposed to HIPVs were more resistant to subsequent weevil feeding and received less damage. Receiver plants had both induced and primed volatile emissions and their resin ducts had an increased epithelial cell (EC) mean area and an increased number of cells located in the second EC layer. Importantly, HIPV exposure increased stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis rate of receiver plants. Receiver-plant responses were also examined under elevated ozone conditions and found to be significantly altered. However, the final defence outcome was not affected. These findings demonstrate that HIPVs modulate conifer metabolism through responses spanning photosynthesis and chemical defence. The responses are adjusted under ozone stress, but the defence benefits remain intact.

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          Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature.

          Herbivore attack is known to increase the emission of volatiles, which attract predators to herbivore-damaged plants in the laboratory and agricultural systems. We quantified volatile emissions from Nicotiana attenuata plants growing in natural populations during attack by three species of leaf-feeding herbivores and mimicked the release of five commonly emitted volatiles individually. Three compounds (cis-3-hexen-1-ol, linalool, and cis-alpha-bergamotene) increased egg predation rates by a generalist predator; linalool and the complete blend decreased lepidopteran oviposition rates. As a consequence, a plant could reduce the number of herbivores by more than 90% by releasing volatiles. These results confirm that indirect defenses can operate in nature.
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            Abiotic stresses and induced BVOCs.

            Plants produce a wide spectrum of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in various tissues above and below ground to communicate with other plants and organisms. However, BVOCs also have various functions in biotic and abiotic stresses. For example abiotic stresses enhance BVOCs emission rates and patterns, altering the communication with other organisms and the photochemical cycles. Recent new insights on biosynthesis and eco-physiological control of constitutive or induced BVOCs have led to formulation of hypotheses on their functions which are presented in this review. Specifically, oxidative and thermal stresses are relieved in the presence of volatile terpenes. Terpenes, C6 compounds, and methyl salicylate are thought to promote direct and indirect defence by modulating the signalling that biochemically activate defence pathways. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Multiple stress factors and the emission of plant VOCs.

              Individual biotic and abiotic stresses, such as high temperature, high light and herbivore attack, are well known to increase the emission of volatile organic compounds from plants. Much less is known about the effect of multiple, co-occurring stress factors, despite the fact that multiple stresses are probably the rule under natural conditions. Here, after briefly summarizing the basic effects of single stress factors on the volatile emission of plants, we survey the influence of multiple stresses. When two or more stresses co-occur their effects are sometimes additive, while in other cases the influence of one stress has priority. Further investigations on the effects of multiple stress factors will improve our understanding of the patterns and functions of plant volatile emission. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Proc Biol Sci
                Proc Biol Sci
                Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
                The Royal Society
                September 14, 2022
                September 7, 2022
                September 7, 2022
                : 289
                : 1982
                : 20220963
                Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, , PO Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
                Author notes
                [ † ]

                Present address: Natural Resources Institute Finland, Juntintie 154, 77600, Suonenjoki, Finland

                Electronic supplementary material is available online at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.6168153.

                Author information
                © 2022 The Authors.

                Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : May 18, 2022
                : August 12, 2022
                Funded by: University of Eastern Finland;
                Funded by: Academy of Finland, http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002341;
                Award ID: 309425
                Award ID: 339575
                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                September 14, 2022

                Life sciences
                between-plant communication,ozone,photosynthesis,resin duct,scots pine,volatile emissions


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