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      An Oral Adsorbent, AST-120, Suppresses Oxidative Stress in Uremic Rats

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          Abstract

          Background: The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suggested to play an important role in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). An oral adsorbent, AST-120, removes uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate (IS) and delays the progression of CKD, but the effect on ROS production is unknown. The present study aimed to determine whether AST-120 reduces oxidative stress in uremic rat kidneys using markers of ROS production such as acrolein and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Methods: Daily administration of AST-120 was started 6 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy and continued for 18 weeks. The changes in metabolic data, serum and urine IS levels, urinary excretion of markers of oxidative stress, and renal histological findings were investigated in uremic rats with or without AST-120 treatment. Results: In parallel with the increase in serum and urine IS, the serum creatinine, urinary protein and acrolein levels started to increase at 6 weeks, but urinary 8-OHdG remained unchanged and significantly increased at 18 weeks in uremic rats. AST-120 markedly and significantly attenuated increases in uremic toxins and oxidative stress levels as well as the histological changes in glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and the tubular staining of 8-OHdG. Conclusion: AST-120 suppressed the progression of CKD, at least in part, via attenuation of oxidative stress induced by uremic toxin.

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          Most cited references 23

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          The elephant in uremia: oxidant stress as a unifying concept of cardiovascular disease in uremia.

          Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in uremic patients. In large cross-sectional studies of dialysis patients, traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia have been found to have low predictive power, while markers of inflammation and malnutrition are highly correlated with cardiovascular mortality. However, the pathophysiology of the disease process that links uremia, inflammation, and malnutrition with increased cardiovascular complications is not well understood. We hereby propose the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress and its sequalae is a major contributor to increased atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality found in uremia. This hypothesis is based on studies that conclusively demonstrate an increased oxidative burden in uremic patients, before and particularly after renal replacement therapies, as evidenced by higher concentrations of multiple biomarkers of oxidative stress. This hypothesis also provides a framework to explain the link that activated phagocytes provide between oxidative stress and inflammation (from infectious and non-infections causes) and the synergistic role that malnutrition (as reflected by low concentrations of albumin and/or antioxidants) contributes to the increased burden of cardiovascular disease in uremia. We further propose that retained uremic solutes such as beta-2 microglobulin, advanced glycosylated end products (AGE), cysteine, and homocysteine, which are substrates for oxidative injury, further contribute to the pro-atherogenic milieu of uremia. Dialytic therapy, which acts to reduce the concentration of oxidized substrates, improves the redox balance. However, processes related to dialytic therapy, such as the prolonged use of catheters for vascular access and the use of bioincompatible dialysis membranes, can contribute to a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative state and thus to a pro-atherogenic state. Anti-oxidative therapeutic strategies for patients with uremia are in their very early stages; nonetheless, early studies demonstrate the potential for significant efficacy in reducing cardiovascular complications.
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            Human cells are protected from mitochondrial dysfunction by complementation of DNA products in fused mitochondria.

            Extensive complementation between fused mitochondria is indicated by recombination of 'parental' mitochondrial (mt) DNA (ref. 1,2) of yeast and plant cells. It has been difficult, however, to demonstrate the occurrence of complementation between fused mitochondria in mammalian species through the presence of recombinant mtDNA molecules, because sequence of mtDNA throughout an individual tends to be uniform owing to its strictly maternal inheritance. We isolated two types of respiration-deficient cell lines, with pathogenic mutations in mitochondrial tRNAIle or tRNALeu(UUR) genes from patients with mitochondrial diseases. The coexistence of their mitochondria within hybrids restored their normal morphology and respiratory enzyme activity by 10-14 days after fusion, indicating the presence of an extensive and continuous exchange of genetic contents between the mitochondria. This complementation between fused mitochondria may represent a defence of highly oxidative organelles against mitochondrial dysfunction caused by the accumulation of mtDNA lesions with age.
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              Mesangial immune injury, hypertension, and progressive glomerular damage in Dahl rats.

              Hypertension frequently accompanies chronic glomerulonephritis. Mesangial injury and glomerulosclerosis are common in glomerulonephritis and are often harbingers of progressive glomerular destruction. Thus, in a model of mesangial immune injury we studied the relationship between hypertension, mesangial injury, and glomerulosclerosis. We induced mesangial ferritin-antiferritin immune complex disease (FIC) in Dahl salt-sensitive (S) and salt-resistant (R) rats. S and R rats with FIC were fed chow containing 0.3% NaCl until 14 weeks of age and then switched to 8.0% NaCl chow until 28 weeks of age. Groups of control S and R rats (no FIC) were either fed 0.3% NaCl for 28 weeks or switched to 8.0% NaCl chow at 14 weeks of age. Blood pressure, serum creatinine, urinary protein, and glomerular injury (assessed by semiquantitative morphometric analysis) were determined at 14 and 28 weeks of age. R rats with or without FIC did not develop hypertension; mesangial injury was minimal. At 14 weeks of age, only S FIC rats developed hypertension, proteinuria, significant mesangial expansion and early glomerulosclerosis. At 28 weeks of age, proteinuria, mesangial expansion, and glomerulosclerosis were significantly more severe in hypertensive S rats with FIC than in those without FIC. These studies show that despite a normal salt intake, mesangial injury hastened the onset of hypertension, but only in rats genetically predisposed to hypertension (S FIC at 14 weeks). High dietary salt further aggravated hypertension, which, in turn, magnified both mesangial injury and glomerulosclerosis. Clinically, the different rates of progression of human glomerulonephritis associated with hypertension may be in part dependent on similar mechanisms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2006
                December 2006
                19 December 2006
                : 26
                : 5
                : 455-461
                Affiliations
                Cardiovascular Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa, Japan
                Article
                96423 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:455–461
                10.1159/000096423
                17057375
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 36, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/96423
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Oxidative stress, Uremic toxin, Adsorbent, oral

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