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      Role of CXCR4 in cell-cell fusion and infection of monocyte-derived macrophages by primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains: two distinct mechanisms of HIV-1 dual tropism.

      Journal of Biology

      Anti-HIV Agents, pharmacology, Cell Fusion, Cells, Cultured, HIV-1, isolation & purification, physiology, Heterocyclic Compounds, Humans, Macrophages, drug effects, metabolism, virology, Monocytes, Receptors, CCR5, Receptors, CXCR4, antagonists & inhibitors, Viral Envelope Proteins, genetics

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          Dual-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains infect both primary macrophages and transformed T-cell lines. Prototype T-cell line-tropic (T-tropic) strains use CXCR4 as their principal entry coreceptor (X4 strains), while macrophagetropic (M-tropic) strains use CCR5 (R5 strains). Prototype dual tropic strains use both coreceptors (R5X4 strains). Recently, CXCR4 expressed on macrophages was found to support infection by certain HIV-1 isolates, including the dual-tropic R5X4 strain 89.6, but not by T-tropic X4 prototypes like 3B. To better understand the cellular basis for dual tropism, we analyzed the macrophage coreceptors used for Env-mediated cell-cell fusion as well as infection by several dual-tropic HIV-1 isolates. Like 89.6, the R5X4 strain DH12 fused with and infected both wild-type and CCR5-negative macrophages. The CXCR4-specific inhibitor AMD3100 blocked DH12 fusion and infection in macrophages that lacked CCR5 but not in wild-type macrophages. This finding indicates two independent entry pathways in macrophages for DH12, CCR5 and CXCR4. Three primary isolates that use CXCR4 but not CCR5 (tybe, UG021, and UG024) replicated efficiently in macrophages regardless of whether CCR5 was present, and AMD3100 blocking of CXCR4 prevented infection in both CCR5 negative and wild-type macrophages. Fusion mediated by UG021 and UG024 Envs in both wild-type and CCR5-deficient macrophages was also blocked by AMD3100. Therefore, these isolates use CXCR4 exclusively for entry into macrophages. These results confirm that macrophage CXCR4 can be used for fusion and infection by primary HIV-1 isolates and indicate that CXCR4 may be the sole macrophage coreceptor for some strains. Thus, dual tropism can result from two distinct mechanisms: utilization of both CCR5 and CXCR4 on macrophages and T-cell lines, respectively (dual-tropic R5X4), or the ability to efficiently utilize CXCR4 on both macrophages and T-cell lines (dual-tropic X4).

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