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      The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil

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          Abstract

          AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO) was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe) methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by HPLC. The hexane extracted sample accounts for high content of γ-oryzanol and tocols. Besides, all of RBO extracts contain a significantly high amount of γ-tocotrienol. In vitro antioxidant assay results indicated that superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction. The temperature in the extraction process also affects the value of the oil. Superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction, in terms of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties compared to other tested extraction methods. Further, thorough study of factors compromising the quality and quantity of RBO recovery is required for the development of enhanced functional foods and other related products.

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          Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid

          Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.
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            Is the in vitro antioxidant potential of whole-grain cereals and cereal products well reflected in vivo?

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              Black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) pigmented fraction suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in chemical and biological model systems.

              Anthocyanins, present in fruits and vegetables as natural colorants, have been well characterized to possess bioactive properties. Anthocyanin components extracted from black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) separated by gel filtration and identified using LC-MS were cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside. A standardized extract of black rice pigmented fraction (BRE) containing known proportions of cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside exhibited marked antioxidant activities and free radical scavenging capacities in a battery of in vitro model systems. Significant (p < 0.05) prevention of supercoiled DNA strand scission induced by reactive oxygen species (specifically, peroxyl radical and hydroxyl radicals) and suppression of the oxidative modification of human low-density lipoprotein was obtained with BRE. In addition, BRE reduced (p < 0.05) the formation of nitric oxide by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, without introducing cell toxicity. The results of this study show that black rice contains anthocyanin pigments with notable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties for potential use in nutraceutical or functional food formulations.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                cta
                Food Science and Technology (Campinas)
                Food Sci. Technol (Campinas)
                Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos (Campinas )
                1678-457X
                September 2015
                : 35
                : 3
                : 493-501
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Chiang Mai University Thailand
                [2 ] Health Innovation Institute Thailand
                [3 ] Mahidol University Thailand
                [4 ] Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research Thailand
                [5 ] Chiang Mai University Thailand
                Article
                S0101-20612015000300493
                10.1590/1678-457X.6730
                5ba34d23-5283-45fd-a7f7-428b1b01d1db

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0101-2061&lng=en
                Categories
                FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

                Food science & Technology
                rice bran oil,tocols,γ-oryzanol,antioxidants
                Food science & Technology
                rice bran oil, tocols, γ-oryzanol, antioxidants

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