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      Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: Rational Mode of Component Images for Left Ventricular Volume Quantitation

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          Abstract

          Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) improves the accuracy of left ventricle (LV) volumetry compared with the two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) approach because geometric assumptions in the algorithms may be eliminated. The relationship between accuracy of mode (short- versus long-axis planimetry) and the number of component images versus time required for analysis remains to be determined. Sixteen latex models simulating heterogeneously distorted (aneurysmatic) human LVs (56–303 ml; mean 182 ± 82 ml) were scanned from an ‘apical’ position (simultaneous 2DE and 3DE). For 3DE volumetry, the slice thickness was varied for the short (C-scan) and long axes (B-scan) in 5-mm steps between 1 and 25 mm. The mean differences (true-echocardiographic volumes) were 16.5 ± 44.3 ml in the 2DE approach (95% confidence intervals –27.8 to +60.8) and 0.6 ± 4.0 ml (short axis; 95% confidence intervals –3.4 to +4.6) as well as 2.1 ± 9.9 ml (long axis; 95% confidence intervals –7.8 to +12.0) in the 3DE approach (in both cases, the slice thickness was 1 mm). Above a slice thickness of 15 mm, the 95% confidence intervals increased steeply; in the short versus long axes, these were –6.5 to +8.5 versus –7.0 to +10.6 at 15 mm and –10.1 to +15.7 versus –11.3 to +10.9 at 20 mm. The intra-observer variance differed significantly (p < 0.001) only above 15 mm (short axis). Time required for analysis derived by measuring short-axis slice thicknesses of 1, 15, and 25 mm was 58 ± 16, 7 ± 2 and 3 ± 1 min, respectively. The most rational component image analysis for 3DE volumetry in the in vitro model uses short-axis slices with a thickness of 15 mm.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Three-dimensional echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular volume in vitro: Comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography and cineventriculography

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            Tomographic left ventricular volume determination in the presence of aneurysm by three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging. I: Asymmetric model hearts.

            To improve the accuracy of measurements of left ventricular volume in the presence of an aneurysm, we used three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging to analyze the shape of left ventricles in 23 asymmetric model hearts with eccentric aneurysms of different sizes, shapes, and localizations. A standard 3.75 MHz ultrasound probe with a rotation motor device was used to obtain a three-dimensional data set. By rotating the probe stepwise 1 degree, 180 radial ultrasound pictures were digitized. On the basis of the three-dimensional data set, the following parameters were determined and compared with the dimensions of the model hearts obtained by direct measurement: total left ventricular volume (LVV), aneurysm volume, area of the aneurysm's base, the longest aneurysm long diameter, and the longest aneurysm cross diameter. In addition, quantification of LVV by three-dimensional echocardiography was compared with biplane two-dimensional echocardiographic measurement according to the disk method. Good agreements were found for LVV measured by both techniques, three-dimensional echocardiographic and direct measurement (mean of differences = 0.91 ml; SD of differences = +/- 6.23 ml; line of regression y = 1.07 x - 14.24 ml; r = 0.968; standard error of the estimate [SEE] = +/- 6.17 ml), aneurysm volume (mean of differences = 0.43 ml; SD of differences = +/- 2.14 ml; line of regression y = 1.05 x - 0.81 ml; r = 0.996; SEE = +/- 1.96 ml), area of the aneurysm's base (mean of differences = 0.24 cm2; SD of differences = +/- 1.72 cm2; line of regression y = 1.02 x - 0.02 cm2; r = 0.981; SEE = +/- 1.75 cm2), the longest aneurysm long diameter (mean of differences = -0.26 mm; SD of differences = +/- 1.60 mm; line of regression y = 0.97 x + 1.34 mm; r = 0.996; SEE = +/- 1.54 mm), and the longest aneurysm cross diameter (mean of differences = 1.35 mm; SD of differences = +/- 3.94 mm; line of regression y = 0.95 x + 3.17 mm; r = 0.941; SEE = +/- 3.99 mm). In contrast, in these extremely asymmetric-shaped model hearts, agreement between biplane two-dimensional echocardiographic and both direct LVV measurement (mean of differences = 7.8 ml; SD of differences = +/- 20.8 ml; line of regression y = 1.48 x - 92.45 ml; r = 0.874; SEE = +/- 18.36 ml) and three-dimensional echocardiographic measurements (mean of differences = -7.6 ml; SD of difference = +/- 18.1 ml; line of regression y = 0.59 x + 80.98 ml; r = 0.908; SEE = +/- 10.36 ml) was poor. Thus tomographic three-dimensional echocardiography allowed accurate volume determination of asymmetric model hearts in the shape of left ventricles with eccentric aneurysms.
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              Three-dimensional echocardiography: The influence of number of component images on accuracy of left ventricular volume quantitation

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2005
                August 2005
                24 August 2005
                : 104
                : 2
                : 76-82
                Affiliations
                2nd Medical Clinic, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
                Article
                86689 Cardiology 2005;104:76–82
                10.1159/000086689
                16020924
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 24, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Noninvasive and Diagnostic Cardiology

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