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      The Role of Nonshivering Thermogenesis Genes on Leptin Levels Regulation in Residents of the Coldest Region of Siberia

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          Abstract

          Leptin plays an important role in thermoregulation and is possibly associated with the microevolutionary processes of human adaptation to a cold climate. In this study, based on the Yakut population ( n = 281 individuals) living in the coldest region of Siberia (t°minimum −71.2 °C), we analyze the serum leptin levels and data of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 10 genes ( UCP1, UCP2, UCP3, FNDC5, PPARGC1A, CIDEA, PTGS2, TRPV1, LEPR, BDNF) that are possibly involved in nonshivering thermogenesis processes. Our results demonstrate that from 14 studied SNPs of 10 genes, 2 SNPs (the TT rs3811787 genotype of the UCP1 gene and the GG rs6265 genotype of the BDNF gene) were associated with the elevated leptin levels in Yakut females ( p < 0.05). Furthermore, of these two SNPs, the rs3811787 of the UCP1 gene demonstrated more indications of natural selection for cold climate adaptation. The prevalence gradient of the T-allele (rs3811787) of UCP1 increased from the south to the north across Eurasia, along the shore of the Arctic Ocean. Thereby, our study suggests the potential involvement of the UCP1 gene in the leptin-mediated thermoregulation mechanism, while the distribution of its allelic variants is probably related to human adaptation to a cold climate.

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          Most cited references 70

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          The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies.
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            Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance.

            The function of brown adipose tissue is to transfer energy from food into heat; physiologically, both the heat produced and the resulting decrease in metabolic efficiency can be of significance. Both the acute activity of the tissue, i.e., the heat production, and the recruitment process in the tissue (that results in a higher thermogenic capacity) are under the control of norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerves. In thermoregulatory thermogenesis, brown adipose tissue is essential for classical nonshivering thermogenesis (this phenomenon does not exist in the absence of functional brown adipose tissue), as well as for the cold acclimation-recruited norepinephrine-induced thermogenesis. Heat production from brown adipose tissue is activated whenever the organism is in need of extra heat, e.g., postnatally, during entry into a febrile state, and during arousal from hibernation, and the rate of thermogenesis is centrally controlled via a pathway initiated in the hypothalamus. Feeding as such also results in activation of brown adipose tissue; a series of diets, apparently all characterized by being low in protein, result in a leptin-dependent recruitment of the tissue; this metaboloregulatory thermogenesis is also under hypothalamic control. When the tissue is active, high amounts of lipids and glucose are combusted in the tissue. The development of brown adipose tissue with its characteristic protein, uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), was probably determinative for the evolutionary success of mammals, as its thermogenesis enhances neonatal survival and allows for active life even in cold surroundings.
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              The mechanisms that balance food intake and energy expenditure determine who will be obese and who will be lean. One of the molecules that regulates energy balance in the mouse is the obese (ob) gene. Mutation of ob results in profound obesity and type II diabetes as part of a syndrome that resembles morbid obesity in humans. The ob gene product may function as part of a signalling pathway from adipose tissue that acts to regulate the size of the body fat depot.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                28 April 2021
                May 2021
                : 22
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Yakut Science Centre of Complex Medical Problems, 677010 Yakutsk, Sakha Republic (Yakutia), Russia; nikanorova.alena@ 123456mail.ru (A.A.N.); psennikovavera@ 123456mail.ru (V.G.P.); donzcrew@ 123456mail.ru (N.N.G.); gpromanov@ 123456gmail.com (G.P.R.); nelloann@ 123456mail.ru (A.V.S.)
                [2 ]Laboratory of Molecular Biology, M.K. Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University, 677000 Yakutsk, Sakha Republic (Yakutia), Russia; sergnahod@ 123456mail.ru (S.S.N.); sskuzmina@ 123456bk.ru (S.S.K.); saznikol@ 123456mail.ru (N.N.S.); sardaanafedorova@ 123456mail.ru (S.A.F.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: barashkov2004@ 123456mail.ru
                Article
                ijms-22-04657
                10.3390/ijms22094657
                8124869
                33925025
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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