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      State of the Art Percutaneous Intervention for the Treatment of Valvular Heart Disease: A Review of the Current Technologies and Ongoing Research in the Field of Percutaneous Valve Replacement and Repair




      S. Karger AG

      Percutaneous, Mitral, Aortic, Pulmonic, Intervention, Valve

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          Technical developments in valvular intervention culminated in the first percutaneous valve replacement in the pulmonary position (2000) followed by replacement in the aortic position (2002). More recently, with the proven feasibility of percutaneous mitral valve repair, interventional cardiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons have begun to develop a new subspecialty dedicated to the percutaneous treatment of valvular disease. This review describes the clinical status of the current field, the applicability and limitations of new technologies, and the upcoming devices that will soon reach Phase I clinical trials.

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          Most cited references 53

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          A prospective survey of patients with valvular heart disease in Europe: The Euro Heart Survey on Valvular Heart Disease.

          To identify the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of contemporary patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) in Europe, and to examine adherence to guidelines. The Euro Heart Survey on VHD was conducted from April to July 2001 in 92 centres from 25 countries; it included prospectively 5001 adults with moderate to severe native VHD, infective endocarditis, or previous valve intervention. VHD was native in 71.9% of patients and 28.1% had had a previous intervention. Mean age was 64+/-14 years. Degenerative aetiologies were the most frequent in aortic VHD and mitral regurgitation while most cases of mitral stenosis were of rheumatic origin. Coronary angiography was used in 85.2% of patients before intervention. Of the 1269 patients who underwent intervention, prosthetic replacement was performed in 99.0% of aortic VHD, percutaneous dilatation in 33.9% of mitral stenosis, and valve repair in 46.5% of mitral regurgitation; 31.7% of patients had > or =1 associated procedure. Of patients with severe, symptomatic, single VHD, 31.8% did not undergo intervention, most frequently because of comorbidities. In asymptomatic patients, accordance with guidelines ranged between 66.0 and 78.5%. Operative mortality was <5% for single VHD. This survey provides unique contemporary data on characteristics and management of patients with VHD. Adherence to guidelines is globally satisfying as regards investigations and interventions.
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            Percutaneous aortic valve implantation retrograde from the femoral artery.

            Percutaneous aortic valve implantation by an antegrade transvenous approach has been described but is problematic. Retrograde prosthetic aortic valve implantation via the femoral artery has potential advantages. Percutaneous prosthetic aortic valve implantation via the femoral arterial approach is described and the initial experience reported. The valve prosthesis is constructed from a stainless steel stent with an attached trileaflet equine pericardial valve and a fabric cuff. After routine aortic balloon valvuloplasty, a 22F or 24F sheath is advanced from the femoral artery to the aorta. A steerable, deflectable catheter facilitates manipulation of the prosthesis around the aortic arch and through the stenotic valve. Rapid ventricular pacing is used to reduce cardiac output while the delivery balloon is inflated to deploy the prosthesis within the annulus. Percutaneous aortic prosthetic valve implantation was attempted in 18 patients (aged 81+/-6 years) in whom surgical risk was deemed excessive because of comorbidities. Iliac arterial injury, seen in the first 2 patients, did not recur after improvement in screening and access site management. Implantation was successful in 14 patients. After successful implantation, the aortic valve area increased from 0.6+/-0.2 to 1.6+/-0.4 cm2. There were no intraprocedural deaths. At follow-up of 75+/-55 days, 16 patients (89%) remained alive. This initial experience suggests that percutaneous transarterial aortic valve implantation is feasible in selected high-risk patients with satisfactory short-term outcomes.
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              Percutaneous Transcatheter Implantation of an Aortic Valve Prosthesis for Calcific Aortic Stenosis


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                February 2007
                06 July 2006
                : 107
                : 2
                : 87-96
                Andreas Gruentzig Cardiovascular Center, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga., USA
                94387 Cardiology 2007;107:87–96
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 72, Pages: 10


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