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      MAP kinase phosphatase 1 controls innate immune responses and suppresses endotoxic shock

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          Septic shock is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. However, genetic factors predisposing to septic shock are not fully understood. Excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and the resultant severe hypotension play a central role in the pathophysiological process. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades are crucial in the biosynthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1 is an archetypal member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase family that dephosphorylates MAP kinase. Thus, we hypothesize that knockout of the Mkp-1 gene results in prolonged MAP kinase activation, augmented cytokine production, and increased susceptibility to endotoxic shock. Here, we show that knockout of Mkp-1 substantially sensitizes mice to endotoxic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. We demonstrate that upon LPS challenge, Mkp-1 −/− cells exhibit prolonged p38 and c-Jun NH 2-terminal kinase activation as well as enhanced TNF-α and interleukin (IL)-6 production compared with wild-type cells. After LPS challenge, Mkp-1 knockout mice produce dramatically more TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 than do wild-type mice. Consequently, Mkp-1 knockout mice develop severe hypotension and multiple organ failure, and exhibit a remarkable increase in mortality. Our studies demonstrate that MKP-1 is a pivotal feedback control regulator of the innate immune responses and plays a critical role in suppressing endotoxin shock.

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          Most cited references 27

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          MAP kinases in the immune response.

          MAP kinases are among the most ancient signal transduction pathways and are widely used throughout evolution in many physiological processes. In mammalian species, MAP kinases are involved in all aspects of immune responses, from the initiation phase of innate immunity, to activation of adaptive immunity, and to cell death when immune function is complete. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding the function and regulation of MAP kinase pathways in these phases of immune responses.
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            Development of TH1 CD4+ T cells through IL-12 produced by Listeria-induced macrophages.

            Development of the appropriate CD4+ T helper (TH) subset during an immune response is important for disease resolution. With the use of naïve, ovalbumin-specific alpha beta T cell receptor transgenic T cell, it was found that heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes induced TH1 development in vitro through macrophage production of interleukin-12 (IL-12). Moreover, inhibition of macrophage production of IL-12 may explain the ability of IL-10 to suppress TH1 development. Murine immune responses to L. monocytogenes in vivo are of the appropriate TH1 phenotype. Therefore, this regulatory pathway may have evolved to enable innate immune cells, through interactions with microbial pathogens, to direct development of specific immunity toward the appropriate TH phenotype.
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              Interleukin 10 (IL-10) inhibits human lymphocyte interferon gamma- production by suppressing natural killer cell stimulatory factor/IL-12 synthesis in accessory cells

              Natural killer cell stimulatory factor or interleukin 12 (NKSF/IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine produced by monocytes/macrophages, B cells, and possibly other accessory cell types primarily in response to bacteria or bacterial products. NKSF/IL-12 mediates pleiomorphic biological activity on T and NK cells and, alone or in synergy with other inducers, is a powerful stimulator of interferon gamma (IFN- gamma) production. IL-10 is a potent inhibitor of monocyte-macrophage activation, that inhibits production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 and also IFN-gamma from lymphocytes acting at the level of accessory cells. Because TNF-alpha and IL-1 are not efficient inducers of IFN-gamma, the mechanism by which IL-10 inhibits IFN-gamma production is not clear. In this paper, we show that IL-10 is a potent inhibitor of NKSF/IL-12 production from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated with Staphylococcus aureus or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Both the production of the free NKSF/IL-12 p40 chain and the biologically active p70 heterodimer are blocked by IL- 10. NKSF/IL-12 p40 chain mRNA accumulation is strongly induced by S. aureus or LPS and downregulated by IL-10, whereas the p35 mRNA is constitutively expressed and only minimally regulated by S. aureus, LPS, or IL-10. Although IL-10 is able to block the production of NKSF/IL-12, a powerful inducer of IFN-gamma both in vitro and in vivo, the mechanism of inhibition of IFN-gamma by IL-10 cannot be explained only on the basis of inhibition of NKSF/IL-12 because IL-10 can partially inhibit IFN-gamma production induced by NKSF/IL-12, and also, the IFN-gamma production in response to various stimuli in the presence of neutralizing antibodies to NKSF/IL-12. Our findings that antibodies against NKSF/IL-12, TNF-alpha, or IL-1 beta can significantly inhibit IFN-gamma production in response to various stimuli and that NKSF/IL-12 and IL-1 beta can overcome the IL-10-mediated inhibition of IFN-gamma, suggest that IL-10 inhibition of IFN-gamma production is primarily due to its blocking production from accessory cells of the IFN-gamma- inducer NKSF/IL-12, as well as the costimulating molecule IL-1 beta.

                Author and article information

                J Exp Med
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                23 January 2006
                : 203
                : 1
                : 131-140
                [1 ]Children's Research Institute, Columbus Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, and [2 ]Integrated Biomedical Science Graduate Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205
                [3 ]Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN 47405
                Author notes
                Copyright © 2006, The Rockefeller University Press



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