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      First detection of the samurai wasp, Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae), in Canada

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          We report the first detection of Trissolcusjaponicus, an exotic Asian egg parasitoid and the primary candidate for classical biological control of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorphahalys, in Canada. Twenty-eight Trissolcusjaponicus emerged from an H.halys egg mass from a site heavily infested by H.halys in Chilliwack, British Columbia, in 2018. This egg mass was deployed and retrieved as part of ongoing sentinel egg mass surveys for natural enemies of H.halys from 2017–2018 in coastal and interior British Columbia (total of 1,496 egg clusters at 16 sites). The identification of T.japonicus was based on biology (high levels of successful emergence from H.halys eggs), morphology, and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Trissolcusjaponicus was not detected at any other survey sites in 2017–2018; however, three species of indigenous egg parasitoids were found attending or emerging from H.halys egg masses at low levels (<4%) at several sites. The origin of the detected T.japonicus, the extent of its establishment in British Columbia, and its ultimate impact on H.halys populations remain to be determined. Nonetheless, the detection of this exotic biological control agent in Canada concurrently with regulatory review of its intentional importation and release is emblematic of the current uncertainty around regulatory control on the movement of biological control agents across borders.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Impact of the Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in North America and Europe: History, Biology, Ecology, and Management.

          The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive pentatomid introduced from Asia into the United States, Canada, multiple European countries, and Chile. In 2010, BMSB populations in the mid-Atlantic United States reached outbreak levels and subsequent feeding severely damaged tree fruit as well as other crops. Significant nuisance issues from adults overwintering inside homes were common. BMSB is a highly polyphagous species with a strong dispersal capacity and high reproductive output, potentially enabling its spread and success in invaded regions. A greater understanding of BMSB biology and ecology and its natural enemies, the identification of the male-produced aggregation pheromone, and the recognition that BMSB disperses into crops from adjacent wooded habitats have led to the development of behavior-based integrated pest management (IPM) tactics. Much is still unknown about BMSB, and continued long-term collaborative studies are necessary to refine crop-specific IPM programs and enhance biological control across invaded landscapes.
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            Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae) emerges in North America

            Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) is an Asian egg parasitoid of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål). It has been under study in U.S. quarantine facilities since 2007 to evaluate its efficacy as a candidate classical biological control agent and its host specificity with regard to the pentatomid fauna native to the United States. A survey of resident egg parasitoids conducted in 2014 with sentinel egg masses of H. halys revealed that T. japonicus was already present in the wild in Beltsville, MD. Seven parasitized egg masses were recovered, of which six yielded live T. japonicus adults. All of these were in a wooded habitat, whereas egg masses placed in nearby soybean fields and an abandoned apple orchard showed no T. japonicus parasitism. How T. japonicus came to that site is unknown and presumed accidental.
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              A New Species of Trissolcus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) Parasitizing Eggs of Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in China with Comments on Its Biology

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                February 25 2019
                February 25 2019
                : 68
                : 29-36
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.68.32203
                © 2019

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