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      n-Type doped transparent conducting binary oxides: an overview

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          Abstract

          A review covering recent developments in computational and experimental study in the n-type doping of binary oxide semiconductors for transparent conducting applications.

          Abstract

          This article focuses on n-type doped transparent conducting binary oxides – namely, those with the general formula M xO y:D, where M xO y is the host oxide material and D is the dopant element. Such materials are of great industrial importance in modern materials chemistry. In particular, there is a focus on the search for alternatives to indium-based materials, prompted by indium's problematic supply risk as well as a number of functional factors. The important relationship between computational study and experimental observation is explored, and an extensive comparison is made between the electrical properties of a number of the most interesting experimentally-prepared materials. In writing this article, we aim to provide both an accessible tutorial of the physical descriptions of transparent conducting oxides, and an up-to-date overview of the field, with a brief history, some key accomplishments from the past few decades, the current state of the field as well as postulation on some likely future developments.

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          Effective ionic radii in oxides and fluorides

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            Transparent, conductive carbon nanotube films.

            We describe a simple process for the fabrication of ultrathin, transparent, optically homogeneous, electrically conducting films of pure single-walled carbon nanotubes and the transfer of those films to various substrates. For equivalent sheet resistance, the films exhibit optical transmittance comparable to that of commercial indium tin oxide in the visible spectrum, but far superior transmittance in the technologically relevant 2- to 5-micrometer infrared spectral band. These characteristics indicate broad applicability of the films for electrical coupling in photonic devices. In an example application, the films are used to construct an electric field-activated optical modulator, which constitutes an optical analog to the nanotube-based field effect transistor.
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              Continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films by chemical vapor deposition for organic photovoltaics.

              We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD, transferred to transparent substrates, and evaluated in organic solar cell heterojunctions (TCE/poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/copper phthalocyanine/fullerene/bathocuproine/aluminum). Key to our success is the continuous nature of the CVD graphene films, which led to minimal surface roughness ( approximately 0.9 nm) and offered sheet resistance down to 230 Omega/sq (at 72% transparency), much lower than stacked graphene flakes at similar transparency. In addition, solar cells with CVD graphene and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were fabricated side-by-side on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and were confirmed to offer comparable performance, with power conversion efficiencies (eta) of 1.18 and 1.27%, respectively. Furthermore, CVD graphene solar cells demonstrated outstanding capability to operate under bending conditions up to 138 degrees , whereas the ITO-based devices displayed cracks and irreversible failure under bending of 60 degrees . Our work indicates the great potential of CVD graphene films for flexible photovoltaic applications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JMCCCX
                Journal of Materials Chemistry C
                J. Mater. Chem. C
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2050-7526
                2050-7534
                2016
                2016
                : 4
                : 29
                : 6946-6961
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Materials Chemistry Research Centre
                [2 ]Department of Chemistry
                [3 ]University College London
                [4 ]London WC1H 0AJ
                [5 ]UK
                [6 ]Kathleen Lonsdale Materials Chemistry
                Article
                10.1039/C6TC01881E
                732c016f-7733-4085-aaf6-87faa7123a63
                © 2016
                History

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