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      Aminoglycoside binding to the HIV-1 RNA dimerization initiation site: thermodynamics and effect on the kissing-loop to duplex conversion

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          Abstract

          Owing to a striking, and most likely fortuitous, structural and sequence similarity with the bacterial 16 S ribosomal A site, the RNA kissing-loop complex formed by the HIV-1 genomic RNA dimerization initiation site (DIS) specifically binds 4,5-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine (2-DOS) aminoglycoside antibiotics. We used chemical probing, molecular modeling, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and UV melting to investigate aminoglycoside binding to the DIS loop–loop complex. We showed that apramycin, an aminoglycoside containing a bicyclic moiety, also binds the DIS, but in a different way than 4,5-disubstituted 2-DOS aminoglycosides. The determination of thermodynamic parameters for various aminoglycosides revealed the role of the different rings in the drug–RNA interaction. Surprisingly, we found that the affinity of lividomycin and neomycin for the DIS ( K d ∼ 30 nM) is significantly higher than that obtained in the same experimental conditions for their natural target, the bacterial A site ( K d ∼ 1.6 µM). In good agreement with their respective affinity, aminoglycoside increase the melting temperature of the loop–loop interaction and also block the conversion from kissing-loop complex to extended duplex. Taken together, our data might be useful for selecting new molecules with improved specificity and affinity toward the HIV-1 DIS RNA.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Crystallography & NMR system: A new software suite for macromolecular structure determination.

          A new software suite, called Crystallography & NMR System (CNS), has been developed for macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography or solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In contrast to existing structure-determination programs, the architecture of CNS is highly flexible, allowing for extension to other structure-determination methods, such as electron microscopy and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. CNS has a hierarchical structure: a high-level hypertext markup language (HTML) user interface, task-oriented user input files, module files, a symbolic structure-determination language (CNS language), and low-level source code. Each layer is accessible to the user. The novice user may just use the HTML interface, while the more advanced user may use any of the other layers. The source code will be distributed, thus source-code modification is possible. The CNS language is sufficiently powerful and flexible that many new algorithms can be easily implemented in the CNS language without changes to the source code. The CNS language allows the user to perform operations on data structures, such as structure factors, electron-density maps, and atomic properties. The power of the CNS language has been demonstrated by the implementation of a comprehensive set of crystallographic procedures for phasing, density modification and refinement. User-friendly task-oriented input files are available for nearly all aspects of macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography and solution NMR.
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            The structural basis for the action of the antibiotics tetracycline, pactamycin, and hygromycin B on the 30S ribosomal subunit.

            We have used the recently determined atomic structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit to determine the structures of its complexes with the antibiotics tetracycline, pactamycin, and hygromycin B. The antibiotics bind to discrete sites on the 30S subunit in a manner consistent with much but not all biochemical data. For each of these antibiotics, interactions with the 30S subunit suggest a mechanism for its effects on ribosome function.
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              Building programmable jigsaw puzzles with RNA.

              One challenge in supramolecular chemistry is the design of versatile, self-assembling building blocks to attain total control of arrangement of matter at a molecular level. We have achieved reliable prediction and design of the three-dimensional structure of artificial RNA building blocks to generate molecular jigsaw puzzle units called tectosquares. They can be programmed with control over their geometry, topology, directionality, and addressability to algorithmically self-assemble into a variety of complex nanoscopic fabrics with predefined periodic and aperiodic patterns and finite dimensions. This work emphasizes the modular and hierarchical characteristics of RNA by showing that small RNA structural motifs can code the precise topology of large molecular architectures. It demonstrates that fully addressable materials based on RNA can be synthesized and provides insights into self-assembly processes involving large populations of RNA molecules.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1Architecture et Réactivité des ARN, UPR 9002 CNRS, Université Louis Pasteur, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue René Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg and 2Laboratoire de Pharmacochimie de la Communication Cellulaire, UMR 7081 CNRS/Université Louis Pasteur, Faculté de Pharmacie, 74 route du Rhin, 67401 Illkirch, France
                Author notes
                * To whom correspondence should be addressed. +33 3 88 41 70 01+33 3 88 60 22 18 e.ennifar@ 123456ibmc.u-strasbg.fr
                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                December 2007
                16 October 2007
                16 October 2007
                : 35
                : 21
                : 7128-7139
                17942426
                2175338
                10.1093/nar/gkm856
                © 2007 The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/uk/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                RNA

                Genetics

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