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      Serine proteases are involved in the pathogenesis of trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced gut and lung injury.

      Shock (Augusta, Ga.)

      Animals, Cell Adhesion Molecules, drug effects, metabolism, Disease Models, Animal, Guanidines, toxicity, Ileum, injuries, pathology, Intestinal Mucosa, Lung, Lung Injury, Male, Neutrophils, physiology, Permeability, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Regression Analysis, Respiratory Burst, Serine Endopeptidases, Serine Proteinase Inhibitors, Shock, Hemorrhagic, enzymology, etiology, physiopathology

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          The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that Intraluminal serine proteases are involved in trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS)-induced intestinal and lung injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated the serine protease inhibitor (6-amidino-2-naphthyl p-guanidinobenzoate dimethanesulfate, Nafamostat) either intraluminally into the gut or intravenously after a laparotomy (trauma) and then subjected to 90 min of hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) or sham shock (T/SS). Intestinal and lung injury was assessed at 3 h after resuscitation with Ringer's lactate solution. In a second set of experiments, mesenteric lymph was collected from the groups of rats subjected to T/HS or T/SS and its ability to activate normal neutrophils was tested. Lung permeability, pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein to plasma protein ratio were increased after T/HS but were significantly decreased in the T/HS rats receiving intraluminal (P < 0.05), but not intravenous, nafamostat. Likewise, T/HS-induced intestinal villus injury was less in the nafamostat-treated shock rats (P < 0.05). Last, the ability of T/HS mesenteric lymph to increase PMN CD11b expression or prime neutrophils for an augmented respiratory burst was significantly reduced by the intraluminal administration of nafamostat. Because intraluminal nafamostat reduced T/HS-induced gut and lung injury as well as the neutrophil activating ability of intestinal T/HS lymph, the presence of serine proteases in the ischemic gut may play an important role in T/HS-induced gut and hence lung injury.

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