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      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Distribution and Expression of RhoA in Rat Retina after Optic Nerve Injury


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          Background: RhoA is a small guanosine triphosphatase which participates in signaling pathways of axonal repellents or inhibitors. However, the distribution and expression of RhoA in the rat retina after optic nerve injury has not been elucidated yet. Objectives: To study the distribution and expression of RhoA in the rat retina after optic nerve injury. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution of RhoA in rat retina after optic nerve injury. The expression of RhoA was analyzed by Western blot. Results: In normal retina and the retina 1 day after optic nerve injury, RhoA was distributed in the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer. Three days after optic nerve injury, it existed in RGCs and the inner plexiform layer. However, 7 days after surgery its immunoreactivity was abundant not only in the RGC and inner plexiform layers but also in the inner nuclear and outer plexiform layers. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of RhoA increased significantly in the retina after optic nerve injury in comparison with normal retina. Conclusion: Theseresults indicate that the distribution and expression of RhoA were extended and enhanced after optic nerve injury, and that RhoA plays an important role in optic nerve regeneration.

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          Identification of the Nogo inhibitor of axon regeneration as a Reticulon protein.

          Adult mammalian axon regeneration is generally successful in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) but is dismally poor in the central nervous system (CNS). However, many classes of CNS axons can extend for long distances in peripheral nerve grafts. A comparison of myelin from the CNS and the PNS has revealed that CNS white matter is selectively inhibitory for axonal outgrowth. Several components of CNS white matter, NI35, NI250(Nogo) and MAG, that have inhibitory activity for axon extension have been described. The IN-1 antibody, which recognizes NI35 and NI250(Nogo), allows moderate degrees of axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Here we identify Nogo as a member of the Reticulon family, Reticulon 4-A. Nogo is expressed by oligodendrocytes but not by Schwann cells, and associates primarily with the endoplasmic reticulum. A 66-residue lumenal/extracellular domain inhibits axonal extension and collapses dorsal root ganglion growth cones. In contrast to Nogo, Reticulon 1 and 3 are not expressed by oligodendrocytes, and the 66-residue lumenal/extracellular domains from Reticulon 1, 2 and 3 do not inhibit axonal regeneration. These data provide a molecular basis to assess the contribution of Nogo to the failure of axonal regeneration in the adult CNS.
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            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Identification of myelin-associated glycoprotein as a major myelin-derived inhibitor of neurite growth.

            Contact-dependent axon growth inhibitory activity is present in CNS myelin, but the inhibitory proteins have not been fully characterized. We report here that at least two peaks of inhibitory activity can be separated by fractionating solubilized CNS myelin proteins by DEAE chromatography. A major peak of inhibitory activity corresponded to the elution profile of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Immunodepletion of MAG from these inhibitory fractions removed neurite growth inhibition, whereas recombinant MAG (ectodomain) was a potent inhibitor of neurite outgrowth. Immunodepletion of MAG from total extracts of CNS myelin restored neurite growth up to 63% of control levels. These results establish that MAG is a significant, and possibly the major, inhibitor in CNS myelin; this has broad implications for axonal regeneration in the injured mammalian CNS.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Nogo and axon regeneration.

              Nogo-A is one of several neurite growth inhibitory components present in oligodendrocytes and CNS myelin membranes. Nogo has a crucial role in restricting axonal regeneration and compensatory fibre growth in the injured adult mammalian CNS. Recent studies have shown that in vivo applications of Nogo neutralizing antibodies, peptides blocking the Nogo receptor subunit NgR, or blockers of the postreceptor components Rho-A and ROCK induce long-distance axonal regeneration and compensatory sprouting, accompanied by an impressive enhancement of functional recovery, in the rat and mouse spinal cord.

                Author and article information

                Ophthalmic Res
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                June 2007
                25 May 2007
                : 39
                : 3
                : 174-178
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, and bThe Hospital of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces No. 8650, Jingzhong City, China
                103237 Ophthalmic Res 2007;39:174–178
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                : 10 July 2006
                : 19 December 2006
                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 21, Pages: 5
                Original Paper

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                RhoA,Optic nerve injury,Rat retina
                Vision sciences, Ophthalmology & Optometry, Pathology
                RhoA, Optic nerve injury, Rat retina


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