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      Perspectives on sipuleucel-T: Its role in the prostate cancer treatment paradigm

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          ABSTRACT

          Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy approved in the US for patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This significant advance for mCRPC treatment provides healthcare professionals with another effective therapy to extend survival. As an immunotherapy, sipuleucel-T possesses specific characteristics differentiating it from traditional therapies. At a roundtable meeting of experts, sipuleucel-T data were discussed, focusing on interpretation and clinical implications. Important differences between immunotherapies and traditional therapies were explored, e.g., mode of action, outcomes, data consistency and robustness, timing of sipuleucel-T treatment, and future perspectives in areas such as short-term markers of long-term benefit.

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          Most cited references33

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          Circulating tumor cells predict survival benefit from treatment in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

          A method for enumerating circulating tumor cells (CTC) has received regulatory clearance. The primary objective of this prospective study was to establish the relationship between posttreatment CTC count and overall survival (OS) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Secondary objectives included determining the prognostic utility of CTC measurement before initiating therapy, and the relationship of CTC to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) changes and OS at these and other time points. Blood was drawn from CRPC patients with progressive disease starting a new line of chemotherapy before treatment and monthly thereafter. Patients were stratified into predetermined Favorable or Unfavorable groups ( or =5 CTC/7.5mL). Two hundred thirty-one of 276 enrolled patients (84%) were evaluable. Patients with Unfavorable pretreatment CTC (57%) had shorter OS (median OS, 11.5 versus 21.7 months; Cox hazard ratio, 3.3; P 26 to 9.3 months). CTC are the most accurate and independent predictor of OS in CRPC. These data led to Food and Drug Administration clearance of this assay for the evaluation of CRPC.
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            Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer: updated survival in the TAX 327 study.

            The TAX 327 study compared docetaxel administered every 3 weeks (D3), weekly docetaxel (D1), and mitoxantrone (M), each with prednisone (P), in 1,006 men with metastatic hormone-resistant prostate cancer (HRPC). The original analysis, undertaken in August 2003 when 557 deaths had occurred, showed significantly better survival and response rates for pain, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and quality of life for D3P when compared with MP. Here, we report an updated analysis of survival. Investigators were asked to provide the date of death or last follow-up for all participants who were alive in August 2003. By March 2007, data on 310 additional deaths were obtained (total = 867 deaths). The survival benefit of D3P compared with MP has persisted with extended follow-up (P = .004). Median survival time was 19.2 months (95% CI, 17.5 to 21.3 months) in the D3P arm, 17.8 months (95% CI, 16.2 to 19.2 months) in the D1P arm, and 16.3 months (95% CI, 14.3 to 17.9 months) in the MP arm. More patients survived >/= 3 years in the D3P and D1P arms (18.6% and 16.6%, respectively) compared with the MP arm (13.5%). Similar trends in survival between treatment arms were seen for men greater than and less than 65 years of age, for those with and without pain at baseline, and for those with baseline PSA greater than and less than the median value of 115 ng/mL. The present analysis confirms that survival of men with metastatic HRPC is significantly longer after treatment with D3P than with MP. Consistent results are observed across subgroups of patients.
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              Placebo-controlled phase III trial of immunologic therapy with sipuleucel-T (APC8015) in patients with metastatic, asymptomatic hormone refractory prostate cancer.

              Sipuleucel-T (APC8015) is an investigational immunotherapy product designed to stimulate T-cell immunity against prostatic acid phosphatase. A phase III study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of sipuleucel-T in a placebo-controlled study. A total of 127 patients with asymptomatic metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive three infusions of sipuleucel-T (n = 82) or placebo (n = 45) every 2 weeks. On disease progression, placebo patients could receive APC8015F, a product made with frozen leukapheresis cells. Of the 127 patients, 115 patients had progressive disease at the time of data analysis, and all patients were followed for survival for 36 months. The median for time to disease progression (TTP) for sipuleucel-T was 11.7 weeks compared with 10.0 weeks for placebo (P = .052, log-rank; hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95%CI, 0.99 to 2.11). Median survival was 25.9 months for sipuleucel-T and 21.4 months for placebo (P = .01, log-rank; HR, 1.70; 95%CI, 1.13 to 2.56). Treatment remained a strong independent predictor of overall survival after adjusting for prognostic factors using a Cox multivariable regression model (P = .002, Wald test; HR, 2.12; 95%CI, 1.31 to 3.44). The median ratio of T-cell stimulation at 8 weeks to pretreatment was eight-fold higher in sipuleucel-T-treated patients (16.9 v 1.99; P < .001). Sipuleucel-T therapy was well tolerated. While the improvement in the primary end point TTP did not achieve statistical significance, this study suggests that sipuleucel-T may provide a survival advantage to asymptomatic HRPC patients. Supportive studies are underway.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncoimmunology
                Oncoimmunology
                KONI
                koni20
                Oncoimmunology
                Taylor & Francis
                2162-4011
                2162-402X
                April 2016
                10 December 2015
                10 December 2015
                : 5
                : 4
                : e1107698
                Affiliations
                [a ]Genitourinary Malignancies Branch and Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, MD, USA
                [b ]Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center , Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [c ]Düsseldorf University, Medical Faculty , Düsseldorf, Germany
                [d ]Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine , Farmington, CT, USA
                [e ]Department of Radiation Therapy, C.H.U. Grenoble , Grenoble, France
                [f ]Department of Tumor Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf , Hamburg, Germany
                [g ]Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London , London, UK
                Author notes

                This article not subject to US copyright law.

                Article
                1107698
                10.1080/2162402X.2015.1107698
                4839373
                27141392
                9cc3603b-3f5d-481b-b244-cdb98b6bb2ce
                © 2016 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The moral rights of the named author(s) have been asserted.

                History
                : 19 August 2015
                : 6 October 2015
                : 8 October 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 50, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Review

                Immunology
                clinical trials,immune responses,immunotherapy,prostate cancer,sipuleucel-t
                Immunology
                clinical trials, immune responses, immunotherapy, prostate cancer, sipuleucel-t

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