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Optical coherence tomography angiography

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      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was one of the biggest advances in ophthalmic imaging. Building on that platform, OCT angiography (OCTA) provides depth resolved images of blood flow in the retina and choroid with levels of detail far exceeding that obtained with older forms of imaging. This new modality is challenging because of the need for new equipment and processing techniques, current limitations of imaging capability, and rapid advancements in both imaging and in our understanding of the imaging and applicable pathophysiology of the retina and choroid. These factors lead to a steep learning curve, even for those with a working understanding dye-based ocular angiography. All for a method of imaging that is a little more than 10 years old. This review begins with a historical account of the development of OCTA, and the methods used in OCTA, including signal processing, image generation, and display techniques. This forms the basis to understand what OCTA images show as well as how image artifacts arise. The anatomy and imaging of specific vascular layers of the eye are reviewed. The integration of OCTA in multimodal imaging in the evaluation of retinal vascular occlusive diseases, diabetic retinopathy, uveitis, inherited diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and disorders of the optic nerve is presented. OCTA is an exciting, disruptive technology. Its use is rapidly expanding in clinical practice as well as for research into the pathophysiology of diseases of the posterior pole.

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        Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035.

        Diabetes is a serious and increasing global health burden and estimates of prevalence are essential for appropriate allocation of resources and monitoring of trends. We conducted a literature search of studies reporting the age-specific prevalence for diabetes and used the Analytic Hierarchy Process to systematically select studies to generate estimates for 219 countries and territories. Estimates for countries without available source data were modelled from pooled estimates of countries that were similar in regard to geography, ethnicity, and economic development. Logistic regression was applied to generate smoothed age-specific prevalence estimates for adults 20-79 years which were then applied to population estimates for 2013 and 2035. A total of 744 data sources were considered and 174 included, representing 130 countries. In 2013, 382 million people had diabetes; this number is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. Most people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries and these will experience the greatest increase in cases of diabetes over the next 22 years. The new estimates of diabetes in adults confirm the large burden of diabetes, especially in developing countries. Estimates will be updated annually including the most recent, high-quality data available. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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          Power laws, Pareto distributions and Zipf's law

           MEJ Newman (2005)

            Author and article information

            [a ] Vitreous, Retina, Macula Consultants of New York, New York, NY, United States
            [b ] Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA, United States
            [c ] The Department of Ophthalmology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston MA, United States
            [d ] Doheny Eye Institute, University of California – Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States
            [e ] Eye Clinic, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences “Luigi Sacco”, Luigi Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
            Author notes
            [* ] Corresponding author. Vitreous, Retina, Macula Consultants of New York, 460 Park Ave., New York, NY 10022, United States. rickspaide@ (R.F. Spaide).
            Prog Retin Eye Res
            Prog Retin Eye Res
            Progress in retinal and eye research
            1 February 2019
            08 December 2017
            May 2018
            07 March 2019
            : 64
            : 1-55
            29229445 6404988 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2017.11.003 NIHMS1006164

            This is an open access article under the CC BY license (



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