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      Structural basis for decreased induction of class IB PI3‐kinases expression by MIF inhibitors

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          Macrophage migration inhibitory factor ( MIF) is a master regulator of proinflammatory cytokines and plays pathological roles when not properly regulated in rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, atherosclerosis, asthma and cancer. Unlike canonical cytokines, MIF has vestigial keto‐enol tautomerase activity. Most of the current MIF inhibitors were screened for the inhibition of this enzymatic activity. However, only some of the enzymatic inhibitors inhibit receptor‐mediated biological functions of MIF, such as cell recruitment, through an unknown molecular mechanism. The goal of this study was to understand the molecular basis underlying the pharmacological inhibition of biological functions of MIF. Here, we demonstrate how the structural changes caused upon inhibitor binding translate into the alteration of MIF‐induced downstream signalling. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor activates phosphoinositide 3‐kinases ( PI3Ks) that play a pivotal role in immune cell recruitment in health and disease. There are several different PI3K isoforms, but little is known about how they respond to MIF. We demonstrate that MIF up‐regulates the expression of Class IB PI3Ks in leucocytes. We also demonstrate that MIF tautomerase active site inhibitors down‐regulate the expression of Class IB PI3Ks as well as leucocyte recruitment in vitro and in vivo. Finally, based on our MIF:inhibitor complex crystal structures, we hypothesize that the reduction in Class IB PI3K expression occurs because of the displacement of Pro1 towards the second loop of MIF upon inhibitor binding, which results in increased flexibility of the loop 2 and sub‐optimal MIF binding to its receptors. These results will provide molecular insights for fine‐tuning the biological functions of MIF.

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          Most cited references 37

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          MIF is a noncognate ligand of CXC chemokine receptors in inflammatory and atherogenic cell recruitment.

          The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a critical role in inflammatory diseases and atherogenesis. We identify the chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4 as functional receptors for MIF. MIF triggered G(alphai)- and integrin-dependent arrest and chemotaxis of monocytes and T cells, rapid integrin activation and calcium influx through CXCR2 or CXCR4. MIF competed with cognate ligands for CXCR4 and CXCR2 binding, and directly bound to CXCR2. CXCR2 and CD74 formed a receptor complex, and monocyte arrest elicited by MIF in inflamed or atherosclerotic arteries involved both CXCR2 and CD74. In vivo, Mif deficiency impaired monocyte adhesion to the arterial wall in atherosclerosis-prone mice, and MIF-induced leukocyte recruitment required Il8rb (which encodes Cxcr2). Blockade of Mif but not of canonical ligands of Cxcr2 or Cxcr4 in mice with advanced atherosclerosis led to plaque regression and reduced monocyte and T-cell content in plaques. By activating both CXCR2 and CXCR4, MIF displays chemokine-like functions and acts as a major regulator of inflammatory cell recruitment and atherogenesis. Targeting MIF in individuals with manifest atherosclerosis can potentially be used to treat this condition.
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            MIF Signal Transduction Initiated by Binding to CD74

            Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) accounts for one of the first cytokine activities to have been described, and it has emerged recently to be an important regulator of innate and adaptive immunity. MIF is an upstream activator of monocytes/macrophages, and it is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of septic shock, arthritis, and other inflammatory conditions. The protein is encoded by a unique but highly conserved gene, and X-ray crystallography studies have shown MIF to define a new protein fold and structural superfamily. Although recent work has begun to illuminate the signal transduction pathways activated by MIF, the nature of its membrane receptor has not been known. Using expression cloning and functional analysis, we report herein that CD74, a Type II transmembrane protein, is a high-affinity binding protein for MIF. MIF binds to the extracellular domain of CD74, and CD74 is required for MIF-induced activation of the extracellular signal–regulated kinase–1/2 MAP kinase cascade, cell proliferation, and PGE2 production. A recombinant, soluble form of CD74 binds MIF with a dissociation constant of ∼9 × 10−9 K d, as defined by surface plasmon resonance (BIAcore analysis), and soluble CD74 inhibits MIF-mediated extracellular signal–regulated kinase activation in defined cell systems. These data provide a molecular basis for MIF's interaction with target cells and identify it as a natural ligand for CD74, which has been implicated previously in signaling and accessory functions for immune cell activation.
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              Function of PI3Kgamma in thymocyte development, T cell activation, and neutrophil migration.

              Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) regulate fundamental cellular responses such as proliferation, apoptosis, cell motility, and adhesion. Viable gene-targeted mice lacking the p110 catalytic subunit of PI3Kgamma were generated. We show that PI3Kgamma controls thymocyte survival and activation of mature T cells but has no role in the development or function of B cells. PI3Kgamma-deficient neutrophils exhibited severe defects in migration and respiratory burst in response to heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists and chemotactic agents. PI3Kgamma links GPCR stimulation to the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate and the activation of protein kinase B, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Thus, PI3Kgamma regulates thymocyte development, T cell activation, neutrophil migration, and the oxidative burst.

                Author and article information

                J Cell Mol Med
                J. Cell. Mol. Med
                Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                13 September 2016
                January 2017
                : 21
                : 1 ( doiID: 10.1111/jcmm.2017.21.issue-1 )
                : 142-153
                [ 1 ] Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologySaint Louis University School of Medicine St. Louis MOUSA
                [ 2 ] Department of PharmacologyYale University School of Medicine New Haven CTUSA
                [ 3 ] Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell BiologyRWTH Aachen University AachenGermany
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence to: Thomas Yoonsang CHO.

                E‐mail: ycho9@ 123456slu.edu

                © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 0, Pages: 12, Words: 7683
                Funded by: National Institutes of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
                Award ID: K01AR060300
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                January 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.0.0 mode:remove_FC converted:27.12.2016

                Molecular medicine

                mif, class ib pi3k, p101, p110 gamma


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