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      Calcium Homeostasis and Imbalance

      ,

      Nephron

      S. Karger AG

      Hypercalcemia, Hypocalcemia, Calcium, Parathyroid, Parathyroid hormone, Vitamin D, Kidney

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          Abstract

          The human body is equipped with an efficient protection system against hypocalcemia. This system is composed of parathyroid glands, bone, kidney, and intestine. By appropriate actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and active vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D), a small fall of extracellular calcium ion concentration is instantly corrected. Thus, a defect of any step in this system results in the development of hypocalcemia. Overloaded calcium either from bone or intestine is efficiently excreted into the urine. Thus, hypercalcemia develops almost exclusively when a greater amount of calcium than the kidney can excrete is loaded. In chronic dialysis patients, either hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia may develop because of defects in these two defense systems against calcium imbalance.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Cloning and characterization of an extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor from bovine parathyroid.

          Maintenance of a stable internal environment within complex organisms requires specialized cells that sense changes in the extracellular concentration of specific ions (such as Ca2+). Although the molecular nature of such ion sensors is unknown, parathyroid cells possess a cell surface Ca(2+)-sensing mechanism that also recognizes trivalent and polyvalent cations (such as neomycin) and couples by changes in phosphoinositide turnover and cytosolic Ca2+ to regulation of parathyroid hormone secretion. The latter restores normocalcaemia by acting on kidney and bone. We now report the cloning of complementary DNA encoding an extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor from bovine parathyroid with pharmacological and functional properties nearly identical to those of the native receptor. The novel approximately 120K receptor shares limited similarity with the metabotropic glutamate receptors and features a large extracellular domain, containing clusters of acidic amino-acid residues possibly involved in calcium binding, coupled to a seven-membrane-spanning domain like those in the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily.
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            Calcium

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              NEF
              Nephron
              10.1159/issn.1660-8151
              Nephron
              S. Karger AG
              978-3-8055-7488-4
              978-3-318-00906-4
              1660-8151
              2235-3186
              2002
              October 2002
              18 October 2002
              : 92
              : Suppl 1
              : 41-45
              Affiliations
              Division of Nephrology and Dialysis Center, Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, and Institute of Medical Sciences, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan
              Article
              65376 Nephron 2002;92(suppl 1):41–45
              10.1159/000065376
              12425329
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 4, References: 16, Pages: 5
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/65376
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