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      Cortical Signal Analysis and Advances in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signal: A Review

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          Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive neuroimaging modality that measures the concentration changes of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) and de-oxy hemoglobin (HbR) at the same time. It is an emerging cortical imaging modality with a good temporal resolution that is acceptable for brain-computer interface applications. Researchers have developed several methods in last two decades to extract the neuronal activation related waveform from the observed fNIRS time series. But still there is no standard method for analysis of fNIRS data. This article presents a brief review of existing methodologies to model and analyze the activation signal. The purpose of this review article is to give a general overview of variety of existing methodologies to extract useful information from measured fNIRS data including pre-processing steps, effects of differential path length factor (DPF), variations and attributes of hemodynamic response function (HRF), extraction of evoked response, removal of physiological noises, instrumentation, and environmental noises and resting/activation state functional connectivity. Finally, the challenges in the analysis of fNIRS signal are summarized.

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          Most cited references 78

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          Spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

          The majority of functional neuroscience studies have focused on the brain's response to a task or stimulus. However, the brain is very active even in the absence of explicit input or output. In this Article we review recent studies examining spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging as a potentially important and revealing manifestation of spontaneous neuronal activity. Although several challenges remain, these studies have provided insight into the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain, variability in behaviour and potential physiological correlates of neurological and psychiatric disease.
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            Consistent resting-state networks across healthy subjects.

            Functional MRI (fMRI) can be applied to study the functional connectivity of the human brain. It has been suggested that fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during rest reflect the neuronal baseline activity of the brain, representing the state of the human brain in the absence of goal-directed neuronal action and external input, and that these slow fluctuations correspond to functionally relevant resting-state networks. Several studies on resting fMRI have been conducted, reporting an apparent similarity between the identified patterns. The spatial consistency of these resting patterns, however, has not yet been evaluated and quantified. In this study, we apply a data analysis approach called tensor probabilistic independent component analysis to resting-state fMRI data to find coherencies that are consistent across subjects and sessions. We characterize and quantify the consistency of these effects by using a bootstrapping approach, and we estimate the BOLD amplitude modulation as well as the voxel-wise cross-subject variation. The analysis found 10 patterns with potential functional relevance, consisting of regions known to be involved in motor function, visual processing, executive functioning, auditory processing, memory, and the so-called default-mode network, each with BOLD signal changes up to 3%. In general, areas with a high mean percentage BOLD signal are consistent and show the least variation around the mean. These findings show that the baseline activity of the brain is consistent across subjects exhibiting significant temporal dynamics, with percentage BOLD signal change comparable with the signal changes found in task-related experiments.
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              Statistical parametric maps in functional imaging: A general linear approach


                Author and article information

                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front. Hum. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                09 June 2016
                : 10
                Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University Busan, South Korea
                Author notes

                Edited by: Kaustubh Supekar, Stanford University, USA

                Reviewed by: Martin J. Herrmann, Universtity of Würzburg, Germany; Qing Zhao, University of Florida, USA

                *Correspondence: Myung Yung Jeong myjeong@
                Copyright © 2016 Kamran, Mannan and Jeong.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 16, References: 78, Pages: 12, Words: 9403


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