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      Management of upper airway edema caused by hereditary angioedema

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          Abstract

          Hereditary angioedema is a rare disorder with a genetic background involving mutations in the genes encoding C1-INH and of factor XII. Its etiology is unknown in a proportion of cases. Recurrent edema formation may involve the subcutis and the submucosa - the latter can produce obstruction in the upper airways and thereby lead to life-threatening asphyxia. This is the reason for the high, 30-to 50-per-cent mortality of undiagnosed or improperly managed cases. Airway obstruction can be prevented through early diagnosis, meaningful patient information, timely recognition of initial symptoms, state-of-the-art emergency therapy, and close monitoring of the patient. Prophylaxis can substantially mitigate the risk of upper airway edema and also improve the patients' quality of life. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any form of upper airway edema should be regarded as a potentially life-threatening condition. None of the currently available prophylactic modalities is capable of preventing UAE with absolute certainty.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Hereditary angioedema: new findings concerning symptoms, affected organs, and course.

          Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 inhibitor deficiency is clinically characterized by relapsing skin swellings, abdominal pain attacks, and life-threatening upper airway obstruction. Our aim was to examine a temporal and spatial pattern of the edema episodes by evaluating the long-term course of hereditary angioedema in order to establish a specific swelling pattern. Data were generated from 221 patients with C1 inhibitor deficiency by asking them about symptoms they experienced during their edema episodes. Documentation was accomplished through the use of standardized questionnaires. A total of 131110 edema episodes were observed. Clinical symptoms started at a mean age of 11.2 (SD 7.7) years. During the following cumulative 5736 years, only 370 (6.5%) symptom-free years occurred. Skin swellings, including extremity, facial, genital, and trunk swellings, and abdominal attacks occurred in 97.4% of all edema episodes of the disease. The other episodes were laryngeal edema (0.9%); edema of the soft palate (0.6%); tongue swellings (0.3%); headache episodes (0.7%); episodes affecting urinary bladder (0.3%), chest (0.2%), muscles (0.4%), joints (0.1%), kidneys (0.1%), and esophagus (0.05%), and were partly combined with other edema episodes. The per-patient analysis and the per-episode analysis revealed markedly discrepant results. On average, women had a more severe course of the disease than men. Patients with early onset of clinical symptoms were affected more severely than those with late onset. The described swelling pattern is specific for HAE and allows a tentative diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and the course of the disease.
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            Hereditary and acquired angioedema: Problems and progress: Proceedings of the third C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency workshop and beyond

            Hereditary angioedema (HAE), a rare but life-threatening condition, manifests as acute attacks of facial, laryngeal, genital, or peripheral swelling or abdominal pain secondary to intra-abdominal edema. Resulting from mutations affecting C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), inhibitor of the first complement system component, attacks are not histamine-mediated and do not respond to antihistamines or corticosteroids. Low awareness and resemblance to other disorders often delay diagnosis; despite availability of C1-INH replacement in some countries, no approved, safe acute attack therapy exists in the United States. The biennial C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency Workshops resulted from a European initiative for better knowledge and treatment of HAE and related diseases. This supplement contains work presented at the third workshop and expanded content toward a definitive picture of angioedema in the absence of allergy. Most notably, it includes cumulative genetic investigations; multinational laboratory diagnosis recommendations; current pathogenesis hypotheses; suggested prophylaxis and acute attack treatment, including home treatment; future treatment options; and analysis of patient subpopulations, including pediatric patients and patients whose angioedema worsened during pregnancy or hormone administration. Causes and management of acquired angioedema and a new type of angioedema with normal C1-INH are also discussed. Collaborative patient and physician efforts, crucial in rare diseases, are emphasized. This supplement seeks to raise awareness and aid diagnosis of HAE, optimize treatment for all patients, and provide a platform for further research in this rare, partially understood disorder.
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              C1 inhibitor deficiency: consensus document.

              We present a consensus document on the diagnosis and management of C1 inhibitor deficiency, a syndrome characterized clinically by recurrent episodes of angio-oedema. In hereditary angio-oedema, a rare autosomal dominant condition, C1 inhibitor function is reduced due to impaired transcription or production of non-functional protein. The diagnosis is confirmed by the presence of a low serum C4 and absent or greatly reduced C1 inhibitor level or function. The condition can cause fatal laryngeal oedema and features indistinguishable from gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Attacks can be precipitated by trauma, infection and other stimulants. Treatment is graded according to response and the clinical site of swelling. Acute treatment for severe attack is by infusion of C1 inhibitor concentrate and for minor attack attenuated androgens and/or tranexamic acid. Prophylactic treatment is by attenuated androgens and/or tranexamic acid. There are a number of new products in trial, including genetically engineered C1 esterase inhibitor, kallikrein inhibitor and bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist. Individual sections provide special advice with respect to diagnosis, management (prophylaxis and emergency care), special situations (childhood, pregnancy, contraception, travel and dental care) and service specification.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol
                Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology : Official Journal of the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
                BioMed Central
                1710-1484
                1710-1492
                2010
                28 July 2010
                : 6
                : 1
                : 19
                Affiliations
                [1 ]3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, H-1125 Budapest, Kútvölgyi út 4, Hungary
                Article
                1710-1492-6-19
                10.1186/1710-1492-6-19
                2920238
                20667122
                Copyright ©2010 Farkas; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Immunology

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