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      Emerging Applications of Drug Delivery Systems in Oral Infectious Diseases Prevention and Treatment

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          Abstract

          The oral cavity is a unique complex ecosystem colonized with huge numbers of microorganism species. Oral cavities are closely associated with oral health and sequentially with systemic health. Many factors might cause the shift of composition of oral microbiota, thus leading to the dysbiosis of oral micro-environment and oral infectious diseases. Local therapies and dental hygiene procedures are the main kinds of treatment. Currently, oral drug delivery systems (DDS) have drawn great attention, and are considered as important adjuvant therapy for oral infectious diseases. DDS are devices that could transport and release the therapeutic drugs or bioactive agents to a certain site and a certain rate in vivo. They could significantly increase the therapeutic effect and reduce the side effect compared with traditional medicine. In the review, emerging recent applications of DDS in the treatment for oral infectious diseases have been summarized, including dental caries, periodontitis, peri-implantitis and oral candidiasis. Furthermore, oral stimuli-responsive DDS, also known as “smart” DDS, have been reported recently, which could react to oral environment and provide more accurate drug delivery or release. In this article, oral smart DDS have also been reviewed. The limits have been discussed, and the research potential demonstrates good prospects.

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          Most cited references177

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          Hydrogel nanoparticles in drug delivery.

          Hydrogel nanoparticles have gained considerable attention in recent years as one of the most promising nanoparticulate drug delivery systems owing to their unique potentials via combining the characteristics of a hydrogel system (e.g., hydrophilicity and extremely high water content) with a nanoparticle (e.g., very small size). Several polymeric hydrogel nanoparticulate systems have been prepared and characterized in recent years, based on both natural and synthetic polymers, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Among the natural polymers, chitosan and alginate have been studied extensively for preparation of hydrogel nanoparticles and from synthetic group, hydrogel nanoparticles based on poly (vinyl alcohol), poly (ethylene oxide), poly (ethyleneimine), poly (vinyl pyrrolidone), and poly-N-isopropylacrylamide have been reported with different characteristics and features with respect to drug delivery. Regardless of the type of polymer used, the release mechanism of the loaded agent from hydrogel nanoparticles is complex, while resulting from three main vectors, i.e., drug diffusion, hydrogel matrix swelling, and chemical reactivity of the drug/matrix. Several crosslinking methods have been used in the way to form the hydrogel matix structures, which can be classified in two major groups of chemically- and physically-induced crosslinking.
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            Applications of nanoparticle systems in drug delivery technology

            The development of nanoparticle-based drug formulations has yielded the opportunities to address and treat challenging diseases. Nanoparticles vary in size but are generally ranging from 100 to 500 nm. Through the manipulation of size, surface characteristics and material used, the nanoparticles can be developed into smart systems, encasing therapeutic and imaging agents as well as bearing stealth property. Further, these systems can deliver drug to specific tissues and provide controlled release therapy. This targeted and sustained drug delivery decreases the drug related toxicity and increase patient’s compliance with less frequent dosing. Nanotechnology has proven beneficial in the treatment of cancer, AIDS and many other disease, also providing advancement in diagnostic testing.
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              Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers: from biomimicry to drug delivery and biomedical applications.

              Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are the first complete dendrimer family to be synthesized, characterized and commercialized. Based on this extensive activity, they are recognized as a unique new class of synthetic nanostructures. Dendrimers allow the precise control of size, shape and placement of functional groups that is desirable for many life science applications. From this perspective, this review focuses on crucial properties of biomimetic dendrimers that will broaden the potential for their use as macromolecular vectors in novel drug delivery and biomedical applications.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                24 January 2020
                February 2020
                : 25
                : 3
                : 516
                Affiliations
                State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases& West China School of Stomatology& National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China; liangjingoudentist@ 123456163.com (J.L.); pengxinyu@ 123456stu.scu.edu.cn (X.P.); zhouxd@ 123456scu.edu.cn (X.Z.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: zoujing1970@ 123456126.com (J.Z.); chenglei@ 123456scu.edu.cn (L.C.); Tel.: +86-1860-289-9366 (J.Z.); +86-1388-228-4602 (L.C.)
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                molecules-25-00516
                10.3390/molecules25030516
                7038021
                31991678
                ace450b1-c690-4cfa-bae9-aea86c6888a3
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 08 December 2019
                : 20 January 2020
                Categories
                Review

                drug delivery systems,oral infectious diseases,stimuli-responsive dds

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