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      Action mechanism and cardiovascular effect of anthocyanins: a systematic review of animal and human studies

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          Abstract

          Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are an important cause of death worldwide. Anthocyanins are a subgroup of flavonoids found in berries, flowers, fruits and leaves. In epidemiological and clinical studies, these polyphenols have been associated with improved cardiovascular risk profiles as well as decreased comorbidities. Human intervention studies using berries, vegetables, parts of plants and cereals (either fresh or as juice) or purified anthocyanin-rich extracts have demonstrated significant improvements in low density lipoproteins oxidation, lipid peroxidation, total plasma antioxidant capacity, and dyslipidemia as well as reduced levels of CVD molecular biomarkers. This review discusses the use of anthocyanins in animal models and their applications in human medicine, as dietary supplements or as new potent drugs against cardiovascular disease.

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          Most cited references 142

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          Angiotensin II stimulates NADH and NADPH oxidase activity in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

          The signaling pathways involved in the long-term metabolic effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) in vascular smooth muscle cells are incompletely understood but include the generation of molecules likely to affect oxidase activity. We examined the ability of Ang II to stimulate superoxide anion formation and investigated the identity of the oxidases responsible for its production. Treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells with Ang II for 4 to 6 hours caused a 2.7 +/- 0.4-fold increase in intracellular superoxide anion formation as detected by lucigenin assay. This superoxide appeared to result from activation of both the NADPH and NADH oxidases. NADPH oxidase activity increased from 3.23 +/- 0.61 to 11.80 +/- 1.72 nmol O2-/min per milligram protein after 4 hours of Ang II, whereas NADH oxidase activity increased from 16.76 +/- 2.13 to 45.00 +/- 4.57 nmol O2-/min per milligram protein. The NADPH oxidase activity was stimulated by exogenous phosphatidic and arachidonic acids and was partially inhibited by the specific inhibitor diphenylene iodinium. NADH oxidase activity was increased by arachidonic and linoleic acids, was insensitive to exogenous phosphatidic acid, and was inhibited by high concentrations of quinacrine. Both of these oxidases appear to reside in the plasma membrane, on the basis of migration of the activity after cellular fractionation and their apparent insensitivity to the mitochondrial poison KCN. These observations suggest that Ang II specifically activates enzyme systems that promote superoxide generation and raise the possibility that these pathways function as second messengers for long-term responses, such as hypertrophy or hyperplasia.
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            Chemical studies of anthocyanins: A review

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              Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in postmenopausal women.

              Dietary flavonoids may have beneficial cardiovascular effects in human populations, but epidemiologic study results have not been conclusive. We used flavonoid food composition data from 3 recently available US Department of Agriculture databases to improve estimates of dietary flavonoid intake and to evaluate the association between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Study participants were 34 489 postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women's Health Study who were free of CVD and had complete food-frequency questionnaire information at baseline. Intakes of total flavonoids and 7 subclasses were categorized into quintiles, and food sources were grouped into frequency categories. Proportional hazards rate ratios (RR) were computed for CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and total mortality after 16 y of follow-up. After multivariate adjustment, significant inverse associations were observed between anthocyanidins and CHD, CVD, and total mortality [RR (95% CI) for any versus no intake: 0.88 (0.78, 0.99), 0.91 (0.83, 0.99), and 0.90 (0.86, 0.95)]; between flavanones and CHD [RR for highest quintile versus lowest: 0.78 (0.65, 0.94)]; and between flavones and total mortality [RR for highest quintile versus lowest: 0.88 (0.82, 0.96)]. No association was found between flavonoid intake and stroke mortality. Individual flavonoid-rich foods associated with significant mortality reduction included bran (added to foods; associated with stroke and CVD); apples or pears or both and red wine (associated with CHD and CVD); grapefruit (associated with CHD); strawberries (associated with CVD); and chocolate (associated with CVD). Dietary intakes of flavanones, anthocyanidins, and certain foods rich in flavonoids were associated with reduced risk of death due to CHD, CVD, and all causes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jordanoreis@outlook.com
                valterv@live.com
                rafaelli_gomes@hotmail.com
                valterv@live.com
                vilhenac@hotmail.com
                paularibera17@gmail.com
                +55 91 3201-7202 , martachagas2@yahoo.com.br
                Journal
                J Transl Med
                J Transl Med
                Journal of Translational Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1479-5876
                15 November 2016
                15 November 2016
                2016
                : 14
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy, Health Science Institute, Federal University of Pará/UFPA, Belém, PA 66075900 Brazil
                [2 ]Pharmaceutical Science Post-Graduation Program, Health Science Institute, Federal University of Pará/UFPA, Belém, PA 66075900 Brazil
                Article
                1076
                10.1186/s12967-016-1076-5
                5111351
                27846846
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)
                Funded by: Fundação Amazônia Paraense de Amparo à Pesquisa (FAPESPA)
                Funded by: CAPES
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Medicine

                anthocyanins, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, polyphenols, animal models, human study

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