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      Uveal melanoma: epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of primary disease

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          Abstract

          Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular malignancy and arises from melanocytes in the iris, ciliary body, or choroid. Early diagnosis and local treatment is crucial, as survival correlates with primary tumor size. However, approximately 50% of patients will develop metastatic disease with 6–12 months’ survival from metastatic diagnosis. Genomic analyses have led to the development of gene-expression profiles that effectively predict metastatic progression; unfortunately, no adjuvant therapy has been shown to prolong survival to date. New insights into the molecular biology of UM have found frequent activating mutations in genes encoding for the G-protein α-subunit, GNAQ and GNA11, and improved understanding of the downstream signaling pathways MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and Hippo have afforded an array of new targets for treatment of this disease. Studies are under way with rationally developed regimens targeting these pathways, and novel agents are under development. We review the diagnosis, management, and surveillance of primary UM and the adjuvant therapy trials under way.

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          Most cited references 80

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          Mutations in GNA11 in uveal melanoma.

          Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular cancer. There are no effective therapies for metastatic disease. Mutations in GNAQ, the gene encoding an alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, are found in 40% of uveal melanomas. We sequenced exon 5 of GNAQ and GNA11, a paralogue of GNAQ, in 713 melanocytic neoplasms of different types (186 uveal melanomas, 139 blue nevi, 106 other nevi, and 282 other melanomas). We sequenced exon 4 of GNAQ and GNA11 in 453 of these samples and in all coding exons of GNAQ and GNA11 in 97 uveal melanomas and 45 blue nevi. We found somatic mutations in exon 5 (affecting Q209) and in exon 4 (affecting R183) in both GNA11 and GNAQ, in a mutually exclusive pattern. Mutations affecting Q209 in GNA11 were present in 7% of blue nevi, 32% of primary uveal melanomas, and 57% of uveal melanoma metastases. In contrast, we observed Q209 mutations in GNAQ in 55% of blue nevi, 45% of uveal melanomas, and 22% of uveal melanoma metastases. Mutations affecting R183 in either GNAQ or GNA11 were less prevalent (2% of blue nevi and 6% of uveal melanomas) than the Q209 mutations. Mutations in GNA11 induced spontaneously metastasizing tumors in a mouse model and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Of the uveal melanomas we analyzed, 83% had somatic mutations in GNAQ or GNA11. Constitutive activation of the pathway involving these two genes appears to be a major contributor to the development of uveal melanoma. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
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            Hippo-independent activation of YAP by the GNAQ uveal melanoma oncogene through a trio-regulated rho GTPase signaling circuitry.

            Mutually exclusive activating mutations in the GNAQ and GNA11 oncogenes, encoding heterotrimeric Gαq family members, have been identified in ∼ 83% and ∼ 6% of uveal and skin melanomas, respectively. However, the molecular events underlying these GNAQ-driven malignancies are not yet defined, thus limiting the ability to develop cancer-targeted therapies. Here, we focused on the transcriptional coactivator YAP, a critical component of the Hippo signaling pathway that controls organ size. We found that Gαq stimulates YAP through a Trio-Rho/Rac signaling circuitry promoting actin polymerization, independently of phospholipase Cβ and the canonical Hippo pathway. Furthermore, we show that Gαq promotes the YAP-dependent growth of uveal melanoma cells, thereby identifying YAP as a suitable therapeutic target in uveal melanoma, a GNAQ/GNA11-initiated human malignancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Novel therapeutic inhibitors of the c-Met signaling pathway in cancer.

              A wide variety of human malignancies exhibit sustained c-Met stimulation, overexpression, or mutation, including carcinomas of the breast, liver, lung, ovary, kidney, and thyroid. Notably, activating mutations in c-Met have been positively identified in patients with a particular hereditary form of papillary renal cancer, directly implicating c-Met in human tumorigenesis. Aberrant signaling of the c-Met signaling pathway due to dysregulation of the c-Met receptor or overexpression of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), has been associated with an aggressive phenotype. Extensive evidence that c-Met signaling is involved in the progression and spread of several cancers and an enhanced understanding of its role in disease have generated considerable interest in c-Met and HGF as major targets in cancer drug development. This has led to the development of a variety of c-Met pathway antagonists with potential clinical applications. The three main approaches of pathway-selective anticancer drug development have included antagonism of ligand/receptor interaction, inhibition of the tyrosine kinase catalytic activity, and blockade of the receptor/effector interaction. Several c-Met antagonists are now under clinical investigation. Preliminary clinical results of several of these agents, including both monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, have been encouraging. Several multitargeted therapies have also been under investigation in the clinic and have demonstrated promise, particularly with regard to tyrosine kinase inhibition.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clin Ophthalmol
                Clin Ophthalmol
                Clinical Ophthalmology
                Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-5467
                1177-5483
                2017
                31 January 2017
                : 11
                : 279-289
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Hospital Medicine
                [2 ]Division of Hematology/Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center
                [3 ]Ophthalmic Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
                [4 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College
                [5 ]Division of Hematology/Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Richard D Carvajal, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, Suite 6GN-435, Milstein Hospital Building, 177 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA, Tel +1 646 317 3141, Fax +1 212 305 3035, Email rdc2150@ 123456cumc.columbia.edu
                Article
                opth-11-279
                10.2147/OPTH.S89591
                5298817
                b5afa66d-9500-4a98-bc48-0c7124298af3
                © 2017 Krantz et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Ophthalmology & Optometry

                uveal melanoma, ocular melanoma, gnaq, gna11, map kinase, mek

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