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      Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits

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          Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. The absolute dependency of light to the plant development has driven evolvement of sophisticated mechanisms to sense and transduce multiple aspects of the light signal. Light effects can be categorized in photoperiod (duration), intensity (quantity), direction and quality (wavelength) including UV-light. Recently, new information has been achieved on the regulation of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits, in which flavonoids have a major contribution on quality. This review focuses on the effects of the different light conditions on the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in fruit producing plants. An overview of the currently known mechanisms of the light-controlled flavonoid accumulation is provided. R2R3 MYB transcription factors are known to regulate by differential expression the biosynthesis of distinct flavonoids in response to specific light wavelengths. Despite recent advances, many gaps remain to be understood in the mechanisms of the transduction pathway of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis. A better knowledge on these regulatory mechanisms is likely to be useful for breeding programs aiming to modify fruit flavonoid pattern.

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          The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla.

          The analysis of the first plant genomes provided unexpected evidence for genome duplication events in species that had previously been considered as true diploids on the basis of their genetics. These polyploidization events may have had important consequences in plant evolution, in particular for species radiation and adaptation and for the modulation of functional capacities. Here we report a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) obtained from a highly homozygous genotype. The draft sequence of the grapevine genome is the fourth one produced so far for flowering plants, the second for a woody species and the first for a fruit crop (cultivated for both fruit and beverage). Grapevine was selected because of its important place in the cultural heritage of humanity beginning during the Neolithic period. Several large expansions of gene families with roles in aromatic features are observed. The grapevine genome has not undergone recent genome duplication, thus enabling the discovery of ancestral traits and features of the genetic organization of flowering plants. This analysis reveals the contribution of three ancestral genomes to the grapevine haploid content. This ancestral arrangement is common to many dicotyledonous plants but is absent from the genome of rice, which is a monocotyledon. Furthermore, we explain the chronology of previously described whole-genome duplication events in the evolution of flowering plants.
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            Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction

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              The ubiquitin-26S proteasome system at the nexus of plant biology.

              Plants, like other eukaryotes, rely on proteolysis to control the abundance of key regulatory proteins and enzymes. Strikingly, genome-wide studies have revealed that the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system (UPS) in particular is an exceedingly large and complex route for protein removal, occupying nearly 6% of the Arabidopsis thaliana proteome. But why is the UPS so pervasive in plants? Data accumulated over the past few years now show that it targets numerous intracellular regulators that have central roles in hormone signalling, the regulation of chromatin structure and transcription, tailoring morphogenesis, responses to environmental challenges, self recognition and battling pathogens.

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                31 July 2014
                09 October 2014
                : 5
                1Department of Biology, University of Oulu Oulu, Finland
                2Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de la Frontera Temuco, Chile
                3Climate laboratory Holt, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway Tromsø, Norway
                4Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Bioforsk Nord Holt Tromsø, Norway
                Author notes

                Edited by: Francesco Damiani, Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche, Italy

                Reviewed by: Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara, RIKEN, Japan; Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann, Universidad de Talca, Chile

                *Correspondence: Laura Jaakola, Climate laboratory Holt, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Holtveien 62, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway e-mail: laura.jaakola@

                This article was submitted to Plant Metabolism and Chemodiversity, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science.

                Copyright © 2014 Zoratti, Karppinen, Luengo Escobar, Häggman and Jaakola.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 156, Pages: 16, Words: 13185
                Plant Science
                Review Article

                Plant science & Botany

                proanthocyanidins, uv, flavonols, fruits, light, mybs, anthocyanins, berries


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