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      Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - an unusual association: a case report and review of the literature

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder that is characterized by the development and growth of cysts in the kidneys and other organs. Urinary protein excretion is usually less than 1 g/24 hours in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and an association of nephrotic syndrome with this condition is considered rare. There are only anecdotal case reports of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease associated with nephrotic syndrome, with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis being the most commonly reported histopathological diagnosis. Nephrotic-range proteinuria in the presence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, with or without an accompanying decline in renal function, should be investigated by open renal biopsy to exclude coexisting glomerular disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with histologically proven diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis presenting with nephrotic-range proteinuria. No other reports of this could be found in a global electronic search of the literature.

          Case presentation

          We report the case of a 35-year-old Indo-Aryan man with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease associated with nephrotic syndrome and a concomitant decline in his glomerular filtration rate. Open renal biopsy revealed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. An accurate diagnosis enabled us to manage him conservatively with a successful outcome, without the use of corticosteroid which is the standard treatment and the drug most commonly used to treat nephrotic syndrome empirically.

          Conclusion

          Despite the reluctance of physicians to carry out a renal biopsy on patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, our case supports the idea that renal biopsy is needed in patients with polycystic kidney disease with nephrotic-range proteinuria to make an accurate diagnosis. It also illustrates the importance of open renal biopsy in planning appropriate treatment for patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with nephrotic-range proteinuria. The treatment for various histological subtypes leading to nephrotic syndrome is different, and in this modern era we should practice evidence-based medicine and should avoid empirical therapy with its associated adverse effects.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Overt proteinuria and microalbuminuria in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

          The amount of proteinuria is a prognostic indicator in a variety of glomerular disorders. To examine the importance of urinary protein excretion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, this study determined the clinical characteristics of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients with established proteinuria and the frequency of microalbuminuria in hypertensive autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients without proteinuria. In 270 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients, mean 24-h urinary protein excretion was 259 +/- 22 mg/day. Forty-eight of 270 autosomal dominant poly-cystic kidney disease patients had over proteinuria (> 300 mg/day). The patients with established proteinuria had higher mean arterial pressures, larger renal volumes, and lower creatinine clearances than did their nonproteinuric counterparts (all P < 0.0001), a greater pack year smoking history (P < 0.05), and the projection of a more aggressive course of renal disease (P < 0.05). All autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients with established proteinuria were hypertensive, as compared with 67% without established proteinuria (P < 0.001). Forty-nine patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy without established proteinuria were examined for microalbuminuria; 41% demonstrated microalbuminuria. Those with microalbuminuria had higher mean arterial pressure, larger renal volumes and increased filtration fraction. Therefore, established proteinuria and microalbuminuria in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients are associated with increased mean arterial pressure and more severe renal cystic involvement.
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            Nephrotic syndrome and IgA nephropathy in polycystic kidney disease.

            A 70-year-old man with polycystic kidney disease developed nephrotic syndrome, deteriorating to renal insufficiency. Histological examination revealed IgA nephropathy. With treatment of prednisolone, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and an angiotensin II receptor-blocker, his proteinuria markedly decreased and renal function was stabilized. This case supports the idea that renal biopsy is needed in patients with polycystic kidney disease with nephrotic-range proteinuria, for appropriate treatment and prevention of renal failure.
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              Amyloidosis in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and tuberculosis: a case report.

              Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder characterized by the development and growth of cysts in the kidneys. Urinary protein excretion is generally less than 1 g/day, and the association of the nephrotic syndrome with this condition is considered rare. A 39-year-old man with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease and nephrotic-range proteiuria is described. During admission, he had general edema and a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. The patient had hyperlipidemia, hypoalbuminemia, and 11.8 g/day proteinuria. The gingiva and rectum biopsies were performed in order to evaluate the etiology of nephrotic syndrome, and revealed AA amyloidosis thought to be secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. We maintained the antituberculous treatment and began colchicine at a dose of 2 g/day and candesartan 8 mg/day. To our knowledge, this is the first autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease case with nephrotic syndrome due to amyloidosis secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Med Case Reports
                Journal of Medical Case Reports
                BioMed Central
                1752-1947
                2010
                29 April 2010
                : 4
                : 125
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh 160030, India
                [2 ]Department of Surgery, Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh 160030, India
                [3 ]Department of Pathology, Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh 160030, India
                [4 ]Department of Radiodiagnosis, Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh 160030, India
                [5 ]Department of Immunopathology, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012, India
                Article
                1752-1947-4-125
                10.1186/1752-1947-4-125
                2873454
                20429898
                Copyright ©2010 D'Cruz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Case report

                Medicine

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