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      Genetic prediction of antihyperglycemic drug targets and risk of epilepsy: a mendelian randomisation study

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          Abstract

          A connection between diabetes and an increased risk of epilepsy has been suggested by observational studies. Animal studies have also shown that antihyperglycemic drugs can improve seizures. However, it is unclear whether antihyperglycemic drugs have a causal role in epilepsy in humans. To investigate this potential causal relationship, a Mendelian randomisation study was conducted using International League Against Epilepsy data as the discovery set and FinnGen data as the replication set. It was discovered that three antidiabetic drug target genes, ETFDH, CYP21A2 and CYP2D6, were involved in the occurrence of epilepsy. In particular, ETFDH was identified as a target gene in both the discovery set (inverse variance weighting [IVW], odds ratio [OR] = 1.018, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004–1.033, p = 0.009) and replication set (IVW, OR = 1.074, 95% CI, 1.034–1.114, p = 0.00016), and CYP21A2 was identified in the discovery set (IVW, OR = 1.029, 95% CI, 1.005–1.053, p = 0.016) and replication set (IVW, OR = 1.057, 95% CI, 1.001–1.116, p = 0.045) as having a causal association with an increased risk of epilepsy. Conversely, the CYP2D6 gene was found to be a protective factor for epilepsy in both the discovery set (IVW, OR = 0.0984, 95% CI, 0.969–0.998, p = 0.025) and replication set (IVW, OR = 0.977, 95% CI, 0.955–1.000, p = 0.046). A search of DrugBank revealed that metformin, an anti-glucose drug, is an inhibitor of the ETFDH gene and may have a potential therapeutic effect on epilepsy.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s40360-023-00718-2.

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          Most cited references30

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          ILAE classification of the epilepsies: Position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology

          The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Classification of the Epilepsies has been updated to reflect our gain in understanding of the epilepsies and their underlying mechanisms following the major scientific advances that have taken place since the last ratified classification in 1989. As a critical tool for the practicing clinician, epilepsy classification must be relevant and dynamic to changes in thinking, yet robust and translatable to all areas of the globe. Its primary purpose is for diagnosis of patients, but it is also critical for epilepsy research, development of antiepileptic therapies, and communication around the world. The new classification originates from a draft document submitted for public comments in 2013, which was revised to incorporate extensive feedback from the international epilepsy community over several rounds of consultation. It presents three levels, starting with seizure type, where it assumes that the patient is having epileptic seizures as defined by the new 2017 ILAE Seizure Classification. After diagnosis of the seizure type, the next step is diagnosis of epilepsy type, including focal epilepsy, generalized epilepsy, combined generalized, and focal epilepsy, and also an unknown epilepsy group. The third level is that of epilepsy syndrome, where a specific syndromic diagnosis can be made. The new classification incorporates etiology along each stage, emphasizing the need to consider etiology at each step of diagnosis, as it often carries significant treatment implications. Etiology is broken into six subgroups, selected because of their potential therapeutic consequences. New terminology is introduced such as developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. The term benign is replaced by the terms self-limited and pharmacoresponsive, to be used where appropriate. It is hoped that this new framework will assist in improving epilepsy care and research in the 21st century.
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            Drug repurposing: progress, challenges and recommendations

            Given the high attrition rates, substantial costs and slow pace of new drug discovery and development, repurposing of 'old' drugs to treat both common and rare diseases is increasingly becoming an attractive proposition because it involves the use of de-risked compounds, with potentially lower overall development costs and shorter development timelines. Various data-driven and experimental approaches have been suggested for the identification of repurposable drug candidates; however, there are also major technological and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed. In this Review, we present approaches used for drug repurposing (also known as drug repositioning), discuss the challenges faced by the repurposing community and recommend innovative ways by which these challenges could be addressed to help realize the full potential of drug repurposing.
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              Epilepsy in adults

              Epilepsy is one of the most common serious brain conditions, affecting over 70 million people worldwide. Its incidence has a bimodal distribution with the highest risk in infants and older age groups. Progress in genomic technology is exposing the complex genetic architecture of the common types of epilepsy, and is driving a paradigm shift. Epilepsy is a symptom complex with multiple risk factors and a strong genetic predisposition rather than a condition with a single expression and cause. These advances have resulted in the new classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsies. A detailed clinical history and a reliable eyewitness account of a seizure are the cornerstones of the diagnosis. Ancillary investigations can help to determine cause and prognosis. Advances in brain imaging are helping to identify the structural and functional causes and consequences of the epilepsies. Comorbidities are increasingly recognised as important aetiological and prognostic markers. Antiseizure medication might suppress seizures in up to two-thirds of all individuals but do not alter long-term prognosis. Epilepsy surgery is the most effective way to achieve long-term seizure freedom in selected individuals with drug-resistant focal epilepsy, but it is probably not used enough. With improved understanding of the gradual development of epilepsy, epigenetic determinants, and pharmacogenomics comes the hope for better, disease-modifying, or even curative, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies. Other developments are clinical implementation of seizure detection devices and new neuromodulation techniques, including responsive neural stimulation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                wangweiping@hebmu.edu.cn
                quzhzh@hebmu.edu.cn
                Journal
                BMC Pharmacol Toxicol
                BMC Pharmacol Toxicol
                BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
                BioMed Central (London )
                2050-6511
                2 January 2024
                2 January 2024
                2024
                : 25
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Key Laboratory of Neurology of Hebei Province, Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, ( https://ror.org/015ycqv20) Shijiazhuang, China
                [2 ]The Second Hospital of Jilin University, ( https://ror.org/00js3aw79) Changchun, China
                Article
                718
                10.1186/s40360-023-00718-2
                10763459
                bf694679-7d1f-4145-abba-00675be40ec2
                © The Author(s) 2023

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 27 July 2023
                : 30 November 2023
                Funding
                Funded by: Project of Hebei Provincial Department of health
                Award ID: 20180310
                Award ID: 20180310
                Award ID: 20180310
                Award ID: 20180310
                Award ID: 20180310
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81671292
                Award ID: 81671292
                Award ID: 81671292
                Award ID: 81671292
                Award ID: 81671292
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2024

                Toxicology
                antihyperglycemic drugs,target genes,epilepsy,mendelian randomisation
                Toxicology
                antihyperglycemic drugs, target genes, epilepsy, mendelian randomisation

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