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      Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Role of Oleic Acid-Triggered Lung Injury and Inflammation

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          Lung injury especially acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be triggered by diverse stimuli, including fatty acids and microbes. ARDS affects thousands of people worldwide each year, presenting high mortality rate and having an economic impact. One of the hallmarks of lung injury is edema formation with alveoli flooding. Animal models are used to study lung injury. Oleic acid-induced lung injury is a widely used model resembling the human disease. The oleic acid has been linked to metabolic and inflammatory diseases; here we focus on lung injury. Firstly, we briefly discuss ARDS and secondly we address the mechanisms by which oleic acid triggers lung injury and inflammation.

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          Most cited references 62

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          Essential fatty acids (EFAs), linoleic acid (LA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) are essential for humans, and are freely available in the diet. Hence, EFA deficiency is extremely rare in humans. To derive the full benefits of EFAs, they need to be metabolized to their respective long-chain metabolites, i.e., dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (AA) from LA; and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from ALA. Some of these long-chain metabolites not only form precursors to respective prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes (TXs), and leukotrienes (LTs), but also give rise to lipoxins (LXs) and resolvins that have potent anti-inflammatory actions. Furthermore, EFAs and their metabolites may function as endogenous angiotensin-converting enzyme and 3-hdroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, nitric oxide (NO) enhancers, anti-hypertensives, and anti-atherosclerotic molecules. Recent studies revealed that EFAs react with NO to yield respective nitroalkene derivatives that exert cell-signaling actions via ligation and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The metabolism of EFAs is altered in several diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Thus, EFAs and their derivatives have varied biological actions and seem to be involved in several physiological and pathological processes.
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            Diseases of the respiratory tract are among the leading causes of death in the world population. Increasing evidence points to a key role of the innate immune system with its pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in both infectious and noninfectious lung diseases, which include pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute lung injury, pneumoconioses, and asthma. PRRs are capable of sensing different microbes as well as endogenous molecules that are released after cell damage. This PRR engagement is the prerequisite for the initiation of immune responses to infections and tissue injuries which can be beneficial or detrimental to the host. PRRs include the Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, and cytosolic DNA sensors. The PRRs and their signaling pathways represent promising targets for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions in various lung diseases.
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              International Union of Pharmacology. LXXI. Free fatty acid receptors FFA1, -2, and -3: pharmacology and pathophysiological functions.

              Identification of G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by free fatty acids has led to considerable interest in their pharmacology and function because of the wide range of normal physiology and disease states in which fatty acids have been implicated. Free fatty acid receptor (FFA) 1 is activated by medium- to long-chain fatty acids and is expressed in the insulin-producing beta-cells of the pancreas. Activation of FFA1 has been proposed to mediate fatty acid augmentation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion although it is unclear whether the known long-term detrimental effects of beta-cell exposure to high levels of fatty acids are also mediated through this receptor. The related receptors FFA2 and FFA3 are both activated by short-chain fatty acids although they have key differences in the signaling pathways they activate and tissue expression pattern. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of the pharmacology and physiological role of these fatty acid receptors.

                Author and article information

                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators of Inflammation
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                12 November 2015
                : 2015
                1Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
                2Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24020-15 Niterói, RJ, Brazil
                3Departamento de Medicina Interna, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
                Author notes
                *Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque: cassianofg@

                Academic Editor: Kang-Yun Lee

                Copyright © 2015 Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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