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      Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Biological Tools for the Mitigation of Salinity Stress in Plants

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          Abstract

          Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses threatening sustainable crop production worldwide. The extent of salinity affected area is expected to cover about 50% of total agricultural land by 2050. Salinity stress produces various detrimental effects on plants’ physiological, biochemical, and molecular features and reduces productivity. The poor plant growth under salinity stress is due to reduced nutrient mobilization, hormonal imbalance, and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ionic toxicity, and osmotic stress. Additionally, salinity also modulates physicochemical properties and reduces the microbial diversity of soil and thus decreases soil health. On the other hand, the demand for crop production is expected to increase in coming decades owing to the increasing global population. Conventional agricultural practices and improved salt-tolerant crop varieties will not be sufficient to achieve the yields desired in the near future. Plants harbor diverse microbes in their rhizosphere, and these have the potential to cope with the salinity stress. These salinity-tolerant plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) assist the plants in withstanding saline conditions. These plant-associated microbes produce different compounds such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), antioxidants, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). Additionally, the naturally associated microbiome of plants has the potential to protect the host through stress avoidance, tolerance, and resistance strategies. Recent developments in microbiome research have shown ways in which novel microbe-assisted technologies can enhance plant salt tolerance and enable higher crop production under saline conditions. This focused review article presents the global scenario of salinity stress and discusses research highlights regarding PGPB and the microbiome as a biological tool for mitigation of salinity stress in plants.

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          Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.

          Various abiotic stresses lead to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants which are highly reactive and toxic and cause damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA which ultimately results in oxidative stress. The ROS comprises both free radical (O(2)(-), superoxide radicals; OH, hydroxyl radical; HO(2), perhydroxy radical and RO, alkoxy radicals) and non-radical (molecular) forms (H(2)O(2), hydrogen peroxide and (1)O(2), singlet oxygen). In chloroplasts, photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII) are the major sites for the production of (1)O(2) and O(2)(-). In mitochondria, complex I, ubiquinone and complex III of electron transport chain (ETC) are the major sites for the generation of O(2)(-). The antioxidant defense machinery protects plants against oxidative stress damages. Plants possess very efficient enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione reductase, GR; monodehydroascorbate reductase, MDHAR; dehydroascorbate reductase, DHAR; glutathione peroxidase, GPX; guaicol peroxidase, GOPX and glutathione-S- transferase, GST) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, ASH; glutathione, GSH; phenolic compounds, alkaloids, non-protein amino acids and α-tocopherols) antioxidant defense systems which work in concert to control the cascades of uncontrolled oxidation and protect plant cells from oxidative damage by scavenging of ROS. ROS also influence the expression of a number of genes and therefore control the many processes like growth, cell cycle, programmed cell death (PCD), abiotic stress responses, pathogen defense, systemic signaling and development. In this review, we describe the biochemistry of ROS and their production sites, and ROS scavenging antioxidant defense machinery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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            Reactive oxygen species homeostasis and signalling during drought and salinity stresses.

            Water deficit and salinity, especially under high light intensity or in combination with other stresses, disrupt photosynthesis and increase photorespiration, altering the normal homeostasis of cells and cause an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS play a dual role in the response of plants to abiotic stresses functioning as toxic by-products of stress metabolism, as well as important signal transduction molecules. In this review, we provide an overview of ROS homeostasis and signalling in response to drought and salt stresses and discuss the current understanding of ROS involvement in stress sensing, stress signalling and regulation of acclimation responses.
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              Soil salinity: A serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation

              Salinity is one of the most brutal environmental factors limiting the productivity of crop plants because most of the crop plants are sensitive to salinity caused by high concentrations of salts in the soil, and the area of land affected by it is increasing day by day. For all important crops, average yields are only a fraction – somewhere between 20% and 50% of record yields; these losses are mostly due to drought and high soil salinity, environmental conditions which will worsen in many regions because of global climate change. A wide range of adaptations and mitigation strategies are required to cope with such impacts. Efficient resource management and crop/livestock improvement for evolving better breeds can help to overcome salinity stress. However, such strategies being long drawn and cost intensive, there is a need to develop simple and low cost biological methods for salinity stress management, which can be used on short term basis. Microorganisms could play a significant role in this respect, if we exploit their unique properties such as tolerance to saline conditions, genetic diversity, synthesis of compatible solutes, production of plant growth promoting hormones, bio-control potential, and their interaction with crop plants.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                07 July 2020
                2020
                : 11
                : 1216
                Affiliations
                Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University , Varanasi, India
                Author notes

                Edited by: Naveen Kumar Arora, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, India

                Reviewed by: Arthur Prudêncio De Araujo Pereira, University of São Paulo, Brazil; Muhammad Naveed, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

                *Correspondence: Jay Prakash Verma, verma_bhu@ 123456yahoo.co.in ; jpv.iesd@ 123456bhu.ac.in

                This article was submitted to Microbiotechnology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2020.01216
                7358356
                32733391
                c3c157c6-9075-4e00-bf9e-1e456e96524d
                Copyright © 2020 Kumar, Singh, Gaurav, Srivastava and Verma.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 28 December 2019
                : 13 May 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 126, Pages: 15, Words: 0
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Review

                Microbiology & Virology
                microbiome,plant growth-promoting bacteria,salinity stress,salt stress amelioration,sustainable agriculture

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