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      Long-Term Potentiation and Memory

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      Physiological Reviews

      American Physiological Society

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          Abstract

          Lynch, MA. Long-Term Potentiation and Memory. Physiol Rev 84: 87–136, 2004; 10.1152/physrev.00014.2003.—One of the most significant challenges in neuroscience is to identify the cellular and molecular processes that underlie learning and memory formation. The past decade has seen remarkable progress in understanding changes that accompany certain forms of acquisition and recall, particularly those forms which require activation of afferent pathways in the hippocampus. This progress can be attributed to a number of factors including well-characterized animal models, well-defined probes for analysis of cell signaling events and changes in gene transcription, and technology which has allowed gene knockout and overexpression in cells and animals. Of the several animal models used in identifying the changes which accompany plasticity in synaptic connections, long-term potentiation (LTP) has received most attention, and although it is not yet clear whether the changes that underlie maintenance of LTP also underlie memory consolidation, significant advances have been made in understanding cell signaling events that contribute to this form of synaptic plasticity. In this review, emphasis is focused on analysis of changes that occur after learning, especially spatial learning, and LTP and the value of assessing these changes in parallel is discussed. The effect of different stressors on spatial learning/memory and LTP is emphasized, and the review concludes with a brief analysis of the contribution of studies, in which transgenic animals were used, to the literature on memory/learning and LTP.

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          Most cited references 590

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            Place navigation impaired in rats with hippocampal lesions

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              AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity.

              Activity-dependent changes in synaptic function are believed to underlie the formation of memories. Two prominent examples are long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), whose mechanisms have been the subject of considerable scrutiny over the past few decades. Here we review the growing literature that supports a critical role for AMPA receptor trafficking in LTP and LTD, focusing on the roles proposed for specific AMPA receptor subunits and their interacting proteins. While much work remains to understand the molecular basis for synaptic plasticity, recent results on AMPA receptor trafficking provide a clear conceptual framework for future studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Physiological Reviews
                Physiological Reviews
                American Physiological Society
                0031-9333
                1522-1210
                January 2004
                January 2004
                : 84
                : 1
                : 87-136
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
                Article
                10.1152/physrev.00014.2003
                14715912
                © 2004

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