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      Effect of Chronic Heart Rate Reduction with Ivabradine on Carotid and Aortic Structure and Function in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats


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          Background: A reduction of heart rate (HR) by surgical means or pharmacological agents affects the progression and/or regression of atherosclerotic lesions. Nevertheless, the effect of bradycardia per se on large artery structure and function has never been investigated in rat models of hypertension. Methods: Four groups of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated for 28 days either by placebo or by the selective HR-reducing agent ivabradine (8.4 mg/kg/day), a novel compound devoid of inotropic or vasodilating effects and without direct action on the autonomic nervous system. At the end of the follow-up period, intra-arterial blood pressure, carotid pulsatile arterial hemodynamics (echo tracking techniques) and the medial cross-sectional area (MCSA) of the aorta and the carotid artery were determined. Results: In conscious animals, chronic administration of ivabradine significantly reduced HR by 26–30% with no change in tail systolic blood pressure. In anesthetized animals, the decrease in HR and the subsequent increase in the diastolic period were responsible for a decrease in diastolic blood pressure. At the site of the large arteries, ivabradine produced a decrease in the MCSA of the thoracic but not of the abdominal aorta, as well as an increase in pulsatile change of the carotid diameter without change in the isobaric distensibility and MCSA. The changes in pulsatile diameter were significantly larger in WKY rats than in SHRs. Conclusion: In normotensive and mainly in SHRs, selective chronic HR reduction by ivabradine is associated with alterations in large arteries involving an aortic antihypertrophic effect.

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          Association between high heart rate and high arterial rigidity in normotensive and hypertensive subjects.

          The dynamic elastic modulus of central arteries is very frequency-dependent Although resting heart rate is a potent independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality both from cardiovascular and from noncardiovascular disease, no link between tachycardia and arterial stiffness has ever been established. To relate arterial stiffness to heart rate in a population with relatively low cardiovascular risk. Pulse-wave velocity measurements and high-resolution echo-tracking techniques were used to determine the degree of arterial distension (of carotid and femoral arteries, and terminal aorta) and the velocity of the pulse wave (aorta and upper and lower limbs) at the same time as heart rate, in members of a large population of normotensive and hypertensive subjects in a multicenter study in Paris, Fleury-Merogis and Grenoble (France). A high heart rate was strongly associated with reduced distension and elevated pulse-wave velocity, even after adjustment for age and blood pressure. A high aortic pulse-wave velocity was also negatively associated with a low baroreflex sensitivity. The most significant associations between high heart rate and high arterial rigidity were found for the carotid artery, the thoracic aorta, and the lower limbs, but there was no significant result for the terminal aorta and the arm arteries. This study demonstrates that there is a statistically significant positive link between high heart rate and high arterial stiffness measured at the site of central and lower limb arteries. Since an elevated heart rate has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular risk, such findings may be relevant for future cardiovascular studies in epidemiology.
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            The static elastic properties of 45 human thoracic and 20 abdominal aortas in vitro and the parameters of a new model

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              Heart rate and the cardiovascular risk


                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                August 2003
                26 September 2003
                : 40
                : 4
                : 320-328
                aDepartment of Anesthesiology, Hôpital Beaujon, Clichy, bINSERM, EMI 0107, cINSERM, U258, dDepartment of Internal Medicine, Broussais Hospital, Paris, France
                72696 J Vasc Res 2003;40:320–328
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 24 July 2002
                : 08 April 2003
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 33, Pages: 9
                Research Paper

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Heart rate,Arterial structure,Arterial function,Spontaneously hypertensive rats


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