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      Safety and Efficacy of Warfarin plus Aspirin Combination Therapy for Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysm Secondary to Kawasaki Disease: A Meta-Analysis

      , , , *

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      Kawasaki disease, Coronary artery aneurysms, Warfarin, Aspirin

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          Abstract

          Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of warfarin plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for the treatment of children with giant coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) secondary to Kawasaki disease (KD). Methods: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI, WANFAN and VIP databases. We selected case-controlled trials of warfarin plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for the treatment of children with giant CAA secondary to KD. Results: Six retrospective studies met our inclusion criteria. There was no significant difference between the warfarin plus aspirin and aspirin alone groups in the rate of CAA regression (OR 1.38, 95% CI 0.52-3.68, p = 0.52) or the incidence of persistent CAA (OR 2.34, 95% CI 0.16-33.50, p = 0.53), coronary artery stenosis (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.18-1.72, p = 0.30) or thrombus formation (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.15-1.69, p = 0.26). There was evidence that warfarin plus aspirin reduced the incidence of coronary artery occlusion (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.02-0.29, p < 0.0001), cardiac infarction (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.63, p = 0.003) and death (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04-0.88, p = 0.03). Conclusion: Warfarin plus aspirin therapy reduced the incidence of occlusion, cardiac infarction and death in children with giant CAA secondary to KD.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Diagnosis, Treatment, and Long-Term Management of Kawasaki Disease: A Statement for Health Professionals From the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association

          Kawasaki disease is an acute self-limited vasculitis of childhood that is characterized by fever, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis, erythema of the lips and oral mucosa, changes in the extremities, rash, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Coronary artery aneurysms or ectasia develop in approximately 15% to 25% of untreated children and may lead to ischemic heart disease or sudden death. A multidisciplinary committee of experts was convened to revise the American Heart Association recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease. The writing group proposes a new algorithm to aid clinicians in deciding which children with fever for > or =5 days and < or =4 classic criteria should undergo echocardiography, receive intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) treatment, or both for Kawasaki disease. The writing group reviews the available data regarding the initial treatment for children with acute Kawasaki disease, as well for those who have persistent or recrudescent fever despite initial therapy with IVIG, including IVIG retreatment and treatment with corticosteroids, tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, and abciximab. Long-term management of patients with Kawasaki disease is tailored to the degree of coronary involvement; recommendations regarding antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy, physical activity, follow-up assessment, and the appropriate diagnostic procedures to evaluate cardiac disease are classified according to risk strata. Recommendations for the initial evaluation, treatment in the acute phase, and long-term management of patients with Kawasaki disease are intended to assist physicians in understanding the range of acceptable approaches for caring for patients with Kawasaki disease. The ultimate decisions for case management must be made by physicians in light of the particular conditions presented by individual patients.
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            Epidemiology of Kawasaki Disease in Asia, Europe, and the United States

            Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that mainly affects children younger than 5 years. Although Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki first reported KD over 40 years ago, the cause of the disease remains unknown. Currently, KD has been diagnosed in more than 60 countries, including those in Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa, as well as in North America and Europe. The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiologic features of KD—particularly its incidence, seasonality, and the occurrence of coronary artery abnormalities—primarily in Japan and the United States, but also in Europe and other Asian countries.
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              ITPKC functional polymorphism associated with Kawasaki disease susceptibility and formation of coronary artery aneurysms.

              Kawasaki disease is a pediatric systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology for which a genetic influence is suspected. We identified a functional SNP (itpkc_3) in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC) gene on chromosome 19q13.2 that is significantly associated with Kawasaki disease susceptibility and also with an increased risk of coronary artery lesions in both Japanese and US children. Transfection experiments showed that the C allele of itpkc_3 reduces splicing efficiency of the ITPKC mRNA. ITPKC acts as a negative regulator of T-cell activation through the Ca2+/NFAT signaling pathway, and the C allele may contribute to immune hyper-reactivity in Kawasaki disease. This finding provides new insights into the mechanisms of immune activation in Kawasaki disease and emphasizes the importance of activated T cells in the pathogenesis of this vasculitis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2014
                August 2014
                12 August 2014
                : 129
                : 1
                : 55-64
                Affiliations
                Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi Autonomous Region, PR China
                Author notes
                *Yusheng Pang, MD, PhD, Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, 22 Shuangyong Road, Nanning 530021, Guangxi Autonomous Region (PR China), E-Mail pangyush@163.com
                Article
                363732 Cardiology 2014;129:55-64
                10.1159/000363732
                25116427
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 1, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Research

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