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      Update on otitis media – prevention and treatment

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          Abstract

          Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion are common childhood disorders, a source of significant morbidity, and a leading cause of antibiotic prescription in primary health care. Although effective treatments are available, some shortcomings remain, and thus better treatments would be welcome. Recent discoveries within the field of otitis media research relating to its etiology and pathogenesis have led to further investigation aimed at developing novel treatments. This article provides a review of the latest evidence relating to the understanding of acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion, current treatment strategies, their limitations, new areas of research, and novel strategies for treatment.

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          Most cited references86

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          Diagnosis and management of acute otitis media.

          (2004)
          This evidence-based clinical practice guideline provides recommendations to primary care clinicians for the management of children from 2 months through 12 years of age with uncomplicated acute otitis media (AOM). The American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians convened a committee composed of primary care physicians and experts in the fields of otolaryngology, epidemiology, and infectious disease. The subcommittee partnered with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Southern California Evidence-Based Practice Center to develop a comprehensive review of the evidence-based literature related to AOM. The resulting evidence report and other sources of data were used to formulate the practice guideline recommendations. The focus of this practice guideline is the appropriate diagnosis and initial treatment of a child presenting with AOM. The guideline provides a specific definition of AOM. It addresses pain management, initial observation versus antibacterial treatment, appropriate choices of antibacterials, and preventive measures. Decisions were made based on a systematic grading of the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations, as well as expert consensus when definitive data were not available. The practice guideline underwent comprehensive peer review before formal approval by the partnering organizations. This clinical practice guideline is not intended as a sole source of guidance in the management of children with AOM. Rather, it is intended to assist primary care clinicians by providing a framework for clinical decision-making. It is not intended to replace clinical judgment or establish a protocol for all children with this condition. These recommendations may not provide the only appropriate approach to the management of this problem.
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            Otitis media.

            Otitis media (OM) continues to be one of the most common childhood infections and is a major cause of morbidity in children. The pathogenesis of OM is multifactorial, involving the adaptive and native immune system, Eustachian-tube dysfunction, viral and bacterial load, and genetic and environmental factors. Initial observation seems to be suitable for many children with OM, but only if appropriate follow-up can be assured. In children younger than 2 years with a certain diagnosis of acute OM, antibiotics are advised. Surgical candidacy depends on associated symptoms, the child's developmental risk, and the anticipated chance of timely spontaneous resolution of the effusion. The recommended approach for surgery is to start with tympanostomy tube placement, eventually followed by adenoidectomy. The ideal intervention for OM, however, does not yet exist, and an urgent need remains to explore new and creative options based on modern insights into the pathophysiology of OM.
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              Early oseltamivir treatment of influenza in children 1-3 years of age: a randomized controlled trial.

              Oseltamivir provides modest clinical benefits to children with influenza when started within 48 hours of symptom onset. The effectiveness of oseltamivir could be substantially greater if the treatment were started earlier during the course of the illness. We carried out a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy of oseltamivir started within 24 hours of symptom onset in children 1-3 years of age with laboratory-confirmed influenza during the seasons of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. Eligible children received either orally administered oseltamivir suspension or a matching placebo twice daily for 5 days. The children received clinical examinations, and the parents filled out detailed symptom diaries for 21 days. Of 408 randomized children who received the study drug (oseltamivir, 203, and placebo, 205), 98 had laboratory-confirmed influenza (influenza A, 79, and influenza B, 19). When started within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms, oseltamivir decreased the incidence of acute otitis media by 85% (95% confidence interval, 25%-97%), but no significant reduction was observed with treatment started within 24 hours. Among children with influenza A, oseltamivir treatment started within 24 hours shortened the median time to resolution of illness by 3.5 days (3.0 vs 6.5 days; P = .006) in all children and by 4.0 days (3.4 vs 7.3; P = .006) in unvaccinated children and reduced parental work absenteeism by 3.0 days. No efficacy was demonstrated against influenza B infections. Oseltamivir treatment started within 24 hours of symptom onset provides substantial benefits to children with influenza A infection. Clinical trials registration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00593502.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Infect Drug Resist
                Infect Drug Resist
                Infection and Drug Resistance
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-6973
                2014
                10 January 2014
                : 7
                : 15-24
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Northampton General Hospital, Northampton, UK
                [2 ]NIHR Nottingham Hearing Biomedical Research Unit, Nottingham, UK
                [3 ]Biomaterials Related Infection Group, Nottingham, UK
                [4 ]Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ali Qureishi, C/o Matija Daniel Otolaryngology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Derby Rd, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK, Tel +44 115 924 9924 x61224, Email aliqureishi@ 123456doctors.org.uk
                Article
                idr-7-015
                10.2147/IDR.S39637
                3894142
                24453496
                c8589454-0ac1-4665-93a8-7631b7044977
                © 2014 Qureishi et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                otitis media,ear,hearing,infection,biofilm,antibiotics
                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                otitis media, ear, hearing, infection, biofilm, antibiotics

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