Spatial navigation is a widely employed behavior in rodent studies of neuronal circuits underlying cognition, learning and memory. In vivo microscopy combined with genetically-encoded indicators provides important new tools to study neuronal circuits, but has been technically difficult to apply during navigation. We describe methods to image the activity of hippocampal CA1 neurons with sub-cellular resolution in behaving mice. Neurons expressing the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP3 were imaged through a chronic hippocampal window. Head-fixed mice performed spatial behaviors within a setup combining a virtual reality system and a custom built two-photon microscope. Populations of place cells were optically identified, and the correlation between the location of their place fields in the virtual environment and their anatomical location in the local circuit was measured. The combination of virtual reality and high-resolution functional imaging should allow for a new generation of studies to probe neuronal circuit dynamics during behavior.