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      Effects of curcumin on canine semen parameters and expression of NOX5 gene in cryopreserved spermatozoa

      1 , 2 , *

      Veterinary Research Forum

      Urmia University Press

      Cryopreservation, Curcumin, Dog, NOX5, Total antioxidant capacity

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          Canine seminal plasma contains antioxidant enzymes to protect sperm against internally generated ROS. These enzymes are removed from seminal plasma during the process of cryopreservation. The freezing/thawing process can cause some morphological and functional changes via ice crystallization and osmolality imbalance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of curcumin supplementation on sperm total count, motility, progressive motility, viability, morphology, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), DNA integrity and NOX5 gene expression of dog frozen semen. The pooled semen was allocated to fresh (Group 1) and frozen (Group 2) controls, curcumin (2.50 mM) (Group 3) and curcumin (5.00 mM), (Group 4). Sperm parameters including total sperm count, morphology, motility, progressive motility, sperm concentration and DNA integrity in addition to TAC were evaluated in fresh and frozen-thawed semen samples. Real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate NOX5 and GADPH (reference gene) genes expressions. Curcumin at 2.50 mM provided a greater protective effect on the DNA integrity compared to 5.00 mM and control groups. TAC was significantly higher in 2.50 mM group than other groups. NOX5 gene expression in curcumin 2.50 mM was higher than 5.00 mM group. In conclusion, curcumin seems to emolliate sperm parameters and to protect sperm against sperm reactive oxygen stress and increases NOX5 gene expression.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay.

            A simple, automated test measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma, the FRAP assay, is presented as a novel method for assessing "antioxidant power." Ferric to ferrous ion reduction at low pH causes a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex to form. FRAP values are obtained by comparing the absorbance change at 593 nm in test reaction mixtures with those containing ferrous ions in known concentration. Absorbance changes are linear over a wide concentration range with antioxidant mixtures, including plasma, and with solutions containing one antioxidant in purified form. There is no apparent interaction between antioxidants. Measured stoichiometric factors of Trolox, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid are all 2.0; that of bilirubin is 4.0. Activity of albumin is very low. Within- and between-run CVs are <1.0 and <3.0%, respectively, at 100-1000 micromol/liter. FRAP values of fresh plasma of healthy Chinese adults: 612-1634 micromol/liter (mean, 1017; SD, 206; n = 141). The FRAP assay is inexpensive, reagents are simple to prepare, results are highly reproducible, and the procedure is straightforward and speedy. The FRAP assay offers a putative index of antioxidant, or reducing, potential of biological fluids within the technological reach of every laboratory and researcher interested in oxidative stress and its effects.
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              Activation of transcription factor NF-kappa B is suppressed by curcumin (diferuloylmethane) [corrected].

              When activated, NF-kappa B, a ubiquitous transcription factor, binds DNA as a heterodimeric complex composed of members of the Rel/NF-kappa B family of polypeptides. Because of its intimate involvement in host defense against disease, this transcription factor is an important target for therapeutic intervention. In the present report we demonstrate that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a known anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic agent, is a potent inhibitor of NF-kappa B activation. Treatment of human myeloid ML-1a cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) rapidly activated NF-kappa B, which consists of p50 and p65 subunits, and this activation was inhibited by curcumin. AP-1 binding factors were also found to be down-modulated by curcumin, whereas the Sp1 binding factor was unaffected. Besides TNF, curcumin also blocked phorbol ester- and hydrogen peroxide-mediated activation of NF-kappa B. The TNF-dependent phosphorylation and degradation of I kappa B alpha was not observed in curcumin-treated cells; the translocation of p65 subunit to the nucleus was inhibited at the same time. The mechanism of action of curcumin was found to be different from that of protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors. Our results indicate that curcumin inhibits NF-kappa B activation pathway at a step before I kappa B alpha phosphorylation but after the convergence of various stimuli.

                Author and article information

                Vet Res Forum
                Vet Res Forum
                Veterinary Research Forum
                Urmia University Press (Urmia, Iran )
                Summer 2019
                15 September 2019
                : 10
                : 3
                : 221-226
                [1 ] PhD Candidate, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran;
                [2 ] Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Adel Saberivand. DVM, PhD, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. E-mail:
                © 2019 Urmia University. All rights reserved

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-noncommercial 4.0 International License, ( which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

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