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      OX40 promotes obesity-induced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance

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          Abstract

          Adaptive immunity plays a critical role in IR and T2DM development; however, the biological mechanisms linking T cell costimulation and glucose metabolism have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that the costimulatory molecule OX40 controls T cell activation and IR development. Inflammatory cell accumulation and enhanced proinflammatory gene expression, as well as high OX40 expression levels on CD4+ T cells, were observed in the adipose tissues of mice with diet-induced obesity. OX40-KO mice exhibited significantly less weight gain and lower fasting glucose levels than those of WT mice, without obvious adipose tissue inflammation. The effects of OX40 on IR are mechanistically linked to the promotion of T cell activation, Th1 cell differentiation and proliferation-as well as the attenuation of Treg suppressive activity and the enhancement of proinflammatory cytokine production-in adipose tissues. Furthermore, OX40 expression on T cells was positively associated with obesity in humans, suggesting that our findings are clinically relevant. In summary, our study revealed that OX40 in CD4+ T cells is crucial for adipose tissue inflammation and IR development. Therefore, the OX40 signaling pathway may be a new target for preventing or treating obesity-related IR and T2DM.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Leptin modulates the T-cell immune response and reverses starvation-induced immunosuppression.

          Nutritional deprivation suppresses immune function. The cloning of the obese gene and identification of its protein product leptin has provided fundamental insight into the hypothalamic regulation of body weight. Circulating levels of this adipocyte-derived hormone are proportional to fat mass but maybe lowered rapidly by fasting or increased by inflammatory mediators. The impaired T-cell immunity of mice now known to be defective in leptin (ob/ob) or its receptor (db/db), has never been explained. Impaired cell-mediated immunity and reduced levels of leptin are both features of low body weight in humans. Indeed, malnutrition predisposes to death from infectious diseases. We report here that leptin has a specific effect on T-lymphocyte responses, differentially regulating the proliferation of naive and memory T cells. Leptin increased Th1 and suppressed Th2 cytokine production. Administration of leptin to mice reversed the immunosuppressive effects of acute starvation. Our findings suggest a new role for leptin in linking nutritional status to cognate cellular immune function, and provide a molecular mechanism to account for the immune dysfunction observed in starvation.
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            T-lymphocyte infiltration in visceral adipose tissue: a primary event in adipose tissue inflammation and the development of obesity-mediated insulin resistance.

            Adipose tissue inflammation may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR). The present study examined the role of lymphocytes in adipose tissue inflammation and IR. In a mouse model of obesity-mediated IR, high-fat diet (HFD) induced IR already after 5 weeks, which was associated with a marked T-lymphocyte infiltration in visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, recruitment of macrophages was delayed with an increase of MAC3-positive staining and F4/80 mRNA expression after 10 weeks of HFD, suggesting a dissociation of macrophage invasion into adipose tissue and IR initiation. In patients with type 2 diabetes, lymphocyte content in adipose tissue biopsies significantly correlated with waist circumference, a marker of IR. Immunohistochemical staining of human adipose tissue revealed the presence of mainly CD4-positive lymphocytes as well as macrophage infiltration. Most macrophages were HLA-DR-positive, reflecting activation through IFNgamma, a cytokine released from CD4-positive lymphocytes. Proinflammatory T-lymphocytes are present in visceral adipose tissue and may contribute to local inflammatory cell activation before the appearance of macrophages, suggesting that these cells could play an important role in the initiation and perpetuation of adipose tissue inflammation as well as the development of IR.
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              Immunological goings-on in visceral adipose tissue.

               Diane Mathis (2013)
              Chronic, low-grade inflammation of visceral adipose tissue, and systemically, is a critical link between recent strikingly parallel rises in the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Macrophages have been recognized for some time to be critical participants in obesity-induced inflammation of adipose tissue. Of late, a score of other cell types of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system have been suggested to play a positive or negative role in adipose tissue infiltrates. This piece reviews the existing data on these new participants; discusses experimental uncertainties, inconsistencies, and complexities; and puts forward a minimalist synthetic scheme. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
                Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
                Springer Nature
                1420-682X
                1420-9071
                October 2017
                June 13 2017
                October 2017
                : 74
                : 20
                : 3827-3840
                Article
                10.1007/s00018-017-2552-7
                28612217
                © 2017

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